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BLM LIBRARY 



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THE CALIFORNIA DESERT * 



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Why Mining is 

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Division of Mineral Resources 
Bureau of Land Management 
Sacramento, California 

BLM LIBRARY 

SC-653, BLDG. 50 
DENVER FEDERAL CENTER 
P. 0. BOX 25047 
DENVER, CO 802250047 



1 



BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 



The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) manages 17.1 million acres of public land in California (17% of the 
state) and 1.5 million acres of Nevada land. It also has responsibility for about 47 million acres of 
subsurface mineral resources representing 47% of the state. 

The BLM balances the management of public lands and resources so that they are considered in a 
combination that will best serve the American people. By Congressional direction, BLM manages the public 
land under the multiple-use concept that includes environmental protection, resource development and 
recreation. 

D BLM lands serve the recreation needs of millions who use them for hiking, sightseeing, rafting, 

rockhounding, camping, fishing, hunting, cycling, bird watching, scenic touring, gold panning, 
landsailing and other fun activities. 

D BLM protects hundreds of areas with cultural, archaeological, educational, historical, botanical, 

scenic, wildlife, and wilderness values. 

D BLM lands contain energy resources such as oil, gas, wind, and geothermal, and substantial mineral 

deposits such as gold, sodium, potash, boron and rare earths. 

D BLM manages resources for wildlife habitat, livestock grazing, wild horse and burro protection, 

wildfire protection, timber production, rights-of-way to assist cities and towns with energy and 
communications, clean air and water, and the security and economic needs of the Nation, state and 
local communities. 

□ BLM also manages many special areas in the state such as the California Desert Conservation Area, 

Desert Tortoise Natural Area, King Range National Conservation Area, Bizz Johnson Hiking Trail, 
East Mojave National Scenic Area, Carrizo Plain Natural Area, Coachella Valley Fringe-Toed Lizard 
Preserve, and more than a hundred Areas of Critical Environmental Concern, all extremely important 
to today's citizens and future generations. 



Please help us protect these lands and resources 



FOR INFORMATION CONTACT: 

BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT - STATE OFFICE, 2800 COTTAGE WAY, 

SACRAMENTO, CALIFORNIA 95825 

(916) 978-4754 



BLM-CA-PT-91 -01 3-3091 



* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1991 - 587-433 



INTRODUCTION atW 

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has completed its studies of the lands within the state of G~c* 
California that are being considered for wilderness designation. In addition, the Bureau of Mines (BOM) 
and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) have completed their investigations of mineral potential 
for those areas recommended for wilderness designation by BLM. The Secretary of Interior will soon 
make recommendations regarding wilderness designation of each Wilderness Study Area (WSA). The 
President will then introduce appropriate legislation to Congress. 

The wilderness study process designed by Congress in the Federal Land Policy and Management Act 
of 1976 (FLPMA) intended that mineral resource values be carefully weighed and not unjustly withdrawn 
from development by inclusion in wilderness areas. FLPMA mandated the Secretary of Interior (through 
BLM) to inventory and identify all resource values and make recommendations regarding the suitability 
of studied areas for wilderness designation. To ensure that important mineral resources were not 
withdrawn without proper consideration, the law also required the USGS and BOM to conduct additional 
mineral inventories and studies on all areas found suitable by BLM for wilderness designation. Mineral 
inventories were not conducted by BOM or USGS for areas recommended unsuitable for wilderness 
designation by BLM. 

It is clear that Congress intended mineral resources to be a major consideration in the determination 
of wilderness areas. FLPMA states specifically in its Declaration of Policy that "... the public lands 
be managed in a manner which recognizes the Nation's need for domestic sources of minerals, food, 
timber, and fiber from the public lands including implementation of the Mining and Minerals Policy Act 
of 1970 . . . ". As the wilderness study process has approached its conclusion, legislation has been 
proposed which did not take into account BLM recommendations and sought to designate most WSAs 
of the California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) as wilderness areas or national parks. Arguments 
used in support of that proposed legislation questioned the rationale of BLM studies, including the 
evaluation of mineral resources, for those areas recommended unsuitable for wilderness designation. 

The purpose of this paper is to provide facts regarding the minerals of the California Desert and to 
inform the American public of the role that mineral resources play in their lives. This paper represents 
a mineral resource perspective intended to supplement the voluminous reports and other documents that 
will be presented to Congress. 



MINERAL DEPOSITS 

Many geological processes have operated throughout geologic time to form the earth as we know it. 
Some of these processes have resulted in the generation of mineral deposits at various places within 



the earth's crust. A mineral deposit is a concentration of minerals or elements of economic significance, 
in sufficient concentrations and quantities to warrant extraction at reasonable cost. 

Geologists have spent decades studying mineral deposits, attempting to determine and understand the 
processes that formed them. The details of a particular type of mineral deposit are of importance to 
the professional geologist because a mineral deposit model is used to guide technical exploration efforts. 
Certain aspects of these models are important to this discussion because these considerations, though 
taken for granted by the professional geologist, are sometimes unknown or overlooked by others. They 
are: 

• The actual time required for a mineral deposit to form is an eternity by man's comprehension 
of time. Even geologists have difficulty imagining the period of time needed for geologic 
processes to form a mineral deposit but accept the concept because they have been trained 
to think in such abstract terms as millions of years. A million years is nearly fourteen thousand 
lifetimes but a mineral deposit may take several million years to form. 

• All minerals are not stable and do not form under the same conditions and not all 
mineralizing processes have acted uniformly. This means: only a few minerals are contained 
in any one deposit; deposits of the same type may differ dramatically from one to another; and 
they are rare in their occurrence. Simply stated, and as an example, a gold deposit usually will 
not contain more than one or two other elements that can be recovered as byproducts. Not 
all gold deposits are alike. And, gold deposits do not occur everywhere. Other types of 
deposits share these traits. The USGS recently published a compilation of descriptions of 
eighty-five mineral deposit models grouped into thirteen broad category types (Cox and Singer, 
eds., 1987, Mineral Deposit Models, USGS Bulletin 1693, 379 p.). This publication attempted 
to quantify the mineral resource potential of various geologic terrains. 

• Different types of mineral deposits form in different ways. Some types of deposits are the 
result of sedimentary processes and form at, or near, the earth's surface. Some deposits form 
deep within the earth from igneous activity involving heat, pressure and fluids that exist there. 
Other geologic forces of faulting, folding, volcanism and erosion may have subsequently buried 
many mineral deposits that formed at the surface, exposed perhaps only a few of the deposits 
that formed at depth, and reburied or totally eroded many. 

• Mineral deposits are found only where they exist, not where we want them to be found. 
The geologic processes that formed mineral deposits acted without regard to man's desires, 
needs or political boundaries. The distribution of mineral resources throughout the world, or 
across the United States, is not equal. 



CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION 1 

MINERAL DEPOSITS ." 1 

THE IMPORTANCE OF MINERAL RESOURCES 4 

THE MINERAL WEALTH OF THE CALIFORNIA DESERT 5 

STRATEGIC AND CRITICAL MATERIALS 10 

MINERALS IN THE WILDERNESS STUDY PROCESS 12 

MINERALS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 15 

THE COST OF MINERAL WITHDRAWAL 16 

CONCLUSION 17 

TABLES 

Table 1. Mineral Commodities That Are Mined, Have Been Mined, 
Or Have Potential To Be Mined In The California Desert 

Conservation Area 6 

Table 2. Potential Economic Impacts of Access Restrictions Within 
The East Mojave National Scenic Area as a Result of 

Pending Legislation 9 

Table 3. "Minerals" Designated Strategic and Critical for Certain 

Commodity Grades 11 

FIGURE 1 1989 Net Import Reliance of Selected Nonfuel Materials 13 

APPENDICES 

I A Major Uses of the Mineral Commodities of the CDCA 20 

B Importance of Industrial Minerals in Everyday Life 27 

II Mineral Resources, Occurrences and Potentials for WSAs of the CDCA 32 

III Claim Data For Wilderness Study Areas 44 

IV Steps of Action and Costs of Clearing Mining Claims 50 

V Active Mines of Southern California (1988-1989) 52 



These concepts are the basis for several "catchy" phrases that have appeared in other discussions and 
testimony regarding the wilderness issue. Geology is a science that attempts to stretch a little 
knowledge a long way. The surface of the ground can be seen and studied but inferring what lies 
beneath the surface is very difficult. 

The absence of evidence is not the evidence of absence ." is a phrase that has been used by the 
mining industry and geological profession to say that just because a mineral resource hasn't been found 
does not mean that it doesn't exist. Most mineral resources lie below the surface of tho ground and 
therefore cannot be seen, counted or evaluated without the use of somewhat sophisticated exploration 
techniques. Exploration is a lengthy and expensive undertaking but most exploration efforts do not lead 
to discovery of ore deposits. Virtually all current exploration is the result of the analysis of many small 
pieces of geological evidence found at, not below, the surface. Geologists use exposed signs of 
mineralization to target their exploration efforts, such as, geochemical analyses, geologic maps, previous 
discoveries, etc. However, undiscovered deposits may exist at the surface, just below the surface or 
at depth. The only statement that can be made about such unknown deposits is: if the proper geologic 
environment exists, there is the possibility of a mineral occurrence. 

Arguments used to question BLM's evaluation of mineral resource values have implied extremes of 
conflicting concepts. "Most significant mineralization is found only in the vicinity of known deposits 
which have been excluded from proposed wilderness or park areas" is an inference that might appear 
true to a layman simply because that is the current limit of mining activities. It is incorrect to imply that 
because a mineral deposit has not been found, it does not exist. It is also incorrect to state that all 
known mineral resources have been excluded from proposed wilderness or park areas. The other 
extreme, "that left open for exploration, the western United States will be pock-marked by open pit 
mines" implies that mining will take place everywhere. The reality is that mining will never take place 
where a mineral deposit does not now exist. We do know that mineral deposits can be scattered or 
clustered but they are much rarer than the statement suggests. The time required for geologic 
processes to "manufacture" a mineral deposit ensures that man will never mine a mineral deposit that 
doesn't exist now. The vast majority of pristine landscapes that remain open to mineral exploration will 
never be mined. 

Mining will also never occur where mineral resources remain undiscovered. Conflict exists between 
wilderness values and mineral development because the geologic forces which have produced the 
pristine and scenic values commonly associated with WSAs of the California Desert have also brought 
significant mineral resources within man's reach. In some instances, the harshness of the desert itself 
produced the mineral deposits. Limited or difficult access to many of these areas has preserved their 
scenic values but also deferred adequate mineral exploration. Future exploration for undiscovered 
mineral deposits will not be allowed in wilderness areas. 



Mineral occurrences become ore deposits only after the contained metals or other elements are 
determined to have a use; only after the mineral occurrence has been found; and only after it has been 
demonstrated that the economic conditions of supply and demand are such that an individual will earn 
a profit from mining the ore. Mining is a direct result of the demands of society and exists because 
of the importance of mineral resources. 



THE IMPORTANCE OF MINERAL RESOURCES 

Several thousand years ago man picked a rock from the ground and fashioned a tool. Our lives were 
changed for all time. The discovery of a particular stone with special properties that allowed it to form 
a sharp cutting edge created a demand for a mineral resource. At first, every individual probably 
searched for and collected his own rocks, for his own use. Not all rocks were suitable for working. 
Some were prettier. Some were better than others. None were found everywhere. Imagine the first 
trade that was made, perhaps a skin for a rock. Something of value from the earth was sold for a 
profit. A tool had added some efficiency to man's life. Demand for that kind of rock grew as more 
people discovered the benefits that the tool brought. Actual mining operations were initiated. This was 
the birth of the mining industry. 

Subsequent discoveries led to new technologies and man progressed from the Stone Age to the Bronze 
Age, to the Iron Age, and now to the Computer Age. Products refined from minerals are used by 
people because they want the better life that the product makes possible. Today, every non-living item 
that we come in contact with, except for the air that we breath, has been made possible by, or from, 
a mineral or rock that was mined. 

The very basis of the American lifestyle, so envied by the rest of the world, has come from the earth. 
Materials we find essential to our everyday life are overwhelmingly mined from the ground. Our cars, 
our televisions, our refrigerators, our lights, our computers, our pictures, and nearly every item that we 
touch every day has some component that is mined. The telephone alone requires 42 different mineral 
commodities. Items not made from a mineral product are fabricated by tools or machines that were 
refined from minerals. Our organic-based items are made with or contain many components derived 
from minerals. Most vegetables are fertilized with chemicals that were once mined. They are cultivated 
and transported to market by machinery and packaged in containers made from materials that are 
mined. Nearly all paper products are made using chemicals and fillers that were mined. 

The importance of mineral resources has lost its relevance to the average person. Today people tend 
to think that electricity comes from a wall outlet, house foundations from cement trucks and watches 
from Japan. Minerals are most often disguised as finished products. According to BOM, each 
American uses approximately 40,000 pounds (lb.) of new materials each year. Throughout a lifetime 



the average American will use approximately 91,000 lb. of iron and steel, 795 lb. of lead, 757 lb. of zinc, 
1,500 lb. of copper, 3,593 lb. of aluminum, 360,500 lb. of coal, and more than 1.2 million lb. of sand, 
gravel, stone, clay and cement. 

The mining industry explores for and produces various mineral resources. These minerals are refined 
and used by the manufacturing industry to produce tools, equipment and other merchandise which are 
needed by society for other business pursuits. The contribution of mining to the economy may appear 
small but it is important. According to BOM, in 1988 the American mining industry produced $30 billion 
in raw minerals which were transformed into $300 billion worth of processed products of mineral origin, 
the basic building blocks of an economy with a Gross National Product of $4,870 billion. 

Modern society creates the demand for mineral commodities. Mining is a requirement of our lifestyle. 
The mining industry does not begin mining operations without careful thought. Mining activities 
represent extensive exploration efforts, planning and long-term, high-risk investments of considerable 
funds. The mining industry exists because people want its products. Few people do not benefit from 
mining and fewer would prefer a lifestyle void of these benefits. A world without mining equates to a 
world without houses, telephones, televisions, automobiles, money, toothpaste or indoor plumbing. 

The American mining industry is an important contributor to the economy and lifestyle of all Americans. 
Appendix I includes a table which presents some of the uses of mineral commodities which are mined 
or have significant potential to be mined within the California Desert and a short discussion of the 
everyday uses of minerals. 



THE MINERAL WEALTH OF THE CALIFORNIA DESERT 

The California desert area is one of the most highly mineralized areas of the world . This is a fact widely 
accepted by professional engineers and geologists. Table 1 lists 81 mineral commodities that are mined, 
have been mined, or have the potential to be mined in the California Desert. According to BOM and 
the State Division of Mines and Geology, 34 separate mineral commodities are currently produced from 
the California Desert. Few places on earth can equal such diversity of mineral resources. The minerals 
now produced from the California Desert are shown on Table 1 with the superscript 1. 

During 1989, California ranked second in the nation for the production of non-fuel minerals with an 
estimated value of $2,839 billion, as reported by BOM, or approximately one tenth of the total domestic 
mineral production, a 5% increase from 1988. This ranking represented a fall from first place in 1988, 
as Arizona took the lead in production of non-fuel minerals due primarily to expansion of its copper 
production. California led all states in the production of asbestos, borates, portland cement, diatomite, 
calcined gypsum, construction sand and gravel, tungsten, yttrium and rare earths. California ranked 



Table 1 

MINERAL COMMODITIES THAT ARE MINED 1 , HAVE BEEN MINED 2 , OR 
HAVE POTENTIAL TO BE MINED 3 IN THE CDCA 



Agate 2,3 

Al unite 3 

Antimony " 3 

Arsenic 3 

Barite 2,3 

Beryllium " 3 

Bismuth " 3 

Calcium Borates 

Sodium Borates 1,2,3 

Calcium Chloride 1,2,3 

Chromium b' 3 

Cinders 1,2,3 

Clay Minerals 1,2,5 
Kaolinite 
Bentonite 2, 



.1.2.3 



1.2.3 



Hectorite 
Sepiolite 3 



.1.2.3 



Cobalt ■ 

Copper 

Decorative Building Stone 1,2,3 

Dimension Stone 2, 

Dolomite 



.2.3 



1.2.3 



.2.3 



.1.2.3 
.2.3 



Epidote' 

Feldspar 

Fluorite 

Gallium 3 

Garnel 2,3 

Gemstones (semi-precious) 1,2,3 

Geothermal Energy h 1 - 234 

Gold 1,2,3 

Green Schist 2,3 

Gypsum 1,2,3 

Halite (salt) 1,2,3 

Iron 2,3 

Jade 2,3 

Kyanite 



1.2.3 



.2.3 



1.2.3 



Lead 

Limestone 

Lithium 2,3 

Magnesium 3 

Manganese • 

Mercury " 2,c 

■ Strategic and CriticaP 



.2.3 



Molybdenum ■ 
Muscovite Mica ■ • " 
Nickel « 3 
Oil and Gas « 3,4 
Perlite 1,2,3 
Phosphate 3 

Platinum Group Metals " 3 
Potash 1,2,3 
Pozzolan 2,3 
Pumice 1,2,3 
Pyrophyllite 1,2,3 
Quartzite and Quartz Sand 2,3 
Rare Earth Minerals • 
Cerium • " 



Lanthanum • 
Neodymium 



1.2.3 
1.2.3 



1.2.3 



Praseodymium « 
Samarium • ' 
Gadolinium • " 

t- 1.2.3 

Europium • 

Terbium • " 
Sand, Gravel and Crushed Rock 1,2,3 
Silver « 1,2,3 
Sodium Carbonate 



.1.2,3 



2.3 



1.2.3 



Sodium Sulfate 1,2,3 

Strontium 

Sulfur 2,1 

Talc ■ « 

Thorium ■" 

Tin- 2,3 

Titanium ■ 

Trona 1,2,3 

Tufa 2,3 

Tungsten ■ 

Uraniurrf 3 

Vanadium 

Wollastonite 2, 

Yttrium 3 

Zeolites 3 

Zinc » 2,3 

Zirconium 3 



.2.3 



.2.3 



Maintained in National Defense Stockpile 



The Defense Production Act Amendments of 1980 specified 
Source: Stratjglc and Critical Materials Report to Congress, 



"energy" to be a Strategic and Critical Material 
October 10. 1990. Department of Defense 



second in the production of natural calcium chloride, feldspar, byproduct gypsum, gemstones, industrial 
sand and gravel, sodium compounds, mercury (a byproduct of gold mining), magnesium compounds 
and gold. The proportion of U.S. 1989 domestic mineral production based on value, as reported by 
BOM, from California was: borates 100%, rare earths 97%, pumice 42.5%, sand & gravel for construction 
21.2%, cement 15.8%, industrial sand & gravel 11.6%, gold 11.4%, gypsum 10.3%, crushed stone 4.3%, 
dimension stone 3.2%, and clays 3.0%. Figures for other commodities are not available because they 
are considered confidential by the reporting companies and are not released by BOM. Over one half 
of the total California production was from the CDCA. 

Production of sodium borate and calcium borate from the CDCA during 1989 accounted for 100% of 
U.S. production, 86% of U.S. consumption and 35% of total exports (significant amounts are imported 
for refinement and consumption or re-export). Rare earth mineral production from the CDCA comprises 
about 97% of total U.S. production, an estimated 83% of total U.S. usage and possibly 86% of total 
exports. Cement, gypsum and talc from the California Desert account for approximately 9%, 9% and 
15%, respectfully, of the total U.S. production (estimated from 1988 production figures). Geothermal 
energy from the CDCA now produces 435 Megawatts of electricity which amounts to 18% of the total 
national production of 2,425 Megawatts. Gold production from the CDCA is estimated to be 10% of 
the total U.S. production and anticipated increases in production will increase this figure substantially. 
In comparison, the total 25 million acres of the CDCA equals less than 25% of the land area of 
California and only 1.01% of the land area of the United States. 

Sand and gravel, cement and other mineral commodities used for construction materials are the very 
foundation of our standard of living. The demand for industrial minerals, particularly sand and gravel, 
from the Desert is tremendous because of the needs of over 18 million people in Southern California. 
The metropolitan areas of Southern California are experiencing a growth rate estimated at 10% and, as 
the sand and gravel deposits in urban areas are depleted, BLM expects a large increase in demand for 
the Desert's undeveloped resources. During Fiscal Year 1990 alone, sales contracts and Free-Use 
permits for nearly 60 million tons of mineral materials with an estimated royalty value to the U.S. of $29 
million were processed by BLM in the California Desert District. (Free-Use permits are granted to 
nonprofit organizations and certain government agencies without charge.) 

Current annual mineral production from the California Desert equals an estimated $1.5 - 2.0 billion. This 
amount is a major direct contribution to the economy of Southern California. According to the California 
Department of Economic Development, in 1989 there were 41,600 persons employed in mining jobs 
within the state, of which an estimated 20,000+ were in the five county area comprising the CDCA. 
These figures do not include those jobs that provide support services to the mining industry, nor those 
jobs which provide support services to employees of the mining industry, or jobs that result from 
manufacturing or fabrication of products refined from minerals. As with any industry, mining supports 



an economic base broader than just the individuals which it employs. There are both direct and indirect 
effects. 

In late 1987, Dr. Shirley C. Anderson of California State University, School of Business Administration 
& Economics, conducted a study ("Mineral Resources of the California Desert and Their Significance to 
California's Economy" in Compendium. The California Desert Mineral Symposium . 1989, BLM, p. 7-46) 
to determine the actual economic impact of the then $1.3 billion mineral industry of the CDCA. In her 
study, Dr. Anderson solicited information from mineral producers. This data was then statistically 
analyzed by the Regional Science Research Institute of Rhode Island with a computer based input-output 
model to determine the total economic impacts of mining across 82 sectors of the local economy. 
Products and services provided to the mining industry are paid for by mineral receipts. These sales 
create jobs and the need for other products and services. Wages paid to miners are in turn spent on 
other goods and services which create additional jobs. Manufacturers that use minerals produced from 
the CDCA provide jobs and need still other products and services. 

The study identified an additional contribution to the total local economy from indirect effects of 
approximately 77% of the direct effect. Each $1 million of mining output in the CDCA provides 15.1 
jobs, $334,628 of personal income, $28,854 for local tax revenues, $47,180 in state tax revenues and 
an actual contribution to the Southern California economy of $1,766,000. 

Assuming that the 'multiplier' is accurate for 1989, the mining industry of the CDCA produced an 
estimated $1.75 billion of mineral commodities but contributed $3.09 billion to the Southern California 
economy. These figures are based upon production values reported by the BOM. In the last official 
estimate (1986), the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis determined a direct contribution of $5.93 billion 
from mining to the $533.8 billion Gross State Product for California. 

During 1990, BOM conducted a mineral investigation of the East Mojave National Scenic Area (EMNSA), 
a 1.5-million-acre portion of the CDCA. In this publication (Minerals in the East Mojave National Scenic 
Area, California: An Economic Analysis, BOM, 1990, MLA 6-90, vol. I & II) the geology, mineral resources 
and mining history were compiled for 701 mines and prospects identified within the EMNSA. The 
mineral investigation identified mineral resources with a total value of $5.0 billion. The economic analysis 
recognized 24 mines and prospects as profitable to mine under present economic conditions. These 
24 mineral properties were studied further to determine the economic impacts which would result from 
three different withdrawal scenarios: 1) full access, 2) HR-3460, and 3)S-11/HR-780. These scenarios 
represent varying degrees of access restrictions associated with different proposals for land withdrawal 
from mineral entry (scenarios 2 and 3 represent legislation proposed during the 101st Congress). The 
results of the study are summarized in Table 2 and illustrate the magnitude of economic impact that 
would result from withdrawal of mineral resources. BOM is, at present, conducting an additional 



inventory of withdrawals and management practice restrictions which affect access to known mineral 
resources on federal lands within the CDCA as part of their Inventory of Land Use Restraints Program. 



Table 2: Potential Economic Impacts of Access Restrictions 
Within the East Mojave National Scenic Area 
as a Result of Pending Legislation 



Impact Full Access 

Cumulative mine revenues $3.0 billion 

Cumulative personal incomes $940 million 

Annual jobs provided 2,379 



HR-3460 

$2.9 billion 

$880 million 

2,165 



S-11/HR-780 

$1.0 billion 

$320 million 

936 



Neither the Anderson study nor BOM's EMNSA study evaluated the impacts of possible price differentials 
of locally produced versus imported mineral commodities. Products imported from other regions of the 
U.S. or abroad can replace those produced locally but the cost of the imported commodity is usually 
higher. Higher costs for products imported into the local market are due to transportation costs, 
possible price setting by international cartels, taxes and tariffs, inferior quality, and other inflationary costs 
associated with import dependence. For instance, just transportation expenses to bring cement several 
hundred extra miles can increase construction costs which will impact building prices and also reduce 
the amount of road and bridge maintenance or construction which a tax dollar buys. 

r 

The importance of mineralization in the California Desert exceeds its current production. The true value 
of the CDCA must include its mineral potential. Four government agencies have separately identified 
over eighty separate mineral commodities with significant potential to be mined within the CDCA. These 
are shown in Table 1 with the superscript 3. Appendix II is a compilation of identified mineral resources 
and mineral occurrence potential for the WSAs of the CDCA. It is this potential for new discoveries, 
expansion of existing mines, and development of known mineral resources that is at stake. The mining 
industry's interest in exploration for mineral resources on public lands is demonstrated by the fact that 
over 1500 Notices and Plans of Operation within the CDCA have been submitted to BLM since the 
passage of FLPMA. 



As discussed above, mineral commodities are the basic building blocks of our economy. Someday the 
ore deposits that are now being mined will be exhausted. When known mineral deposits are depleted 
the world will need new sources of mineral commodities. No one can accurately predict which mineral 
commodities may be of greatest value years in the future. As technology and economics change, the 
important minerals of the future may be quite different from today. Someday new uses for various 



minerals will be developed. It is the potential to develop new reserves that can help stave off future 
stagnation of our economy. 

The late Dr. Vincent McKelvey, former director of the U.S. Geological Survey, summarized the challenge: 

"Appraising mineral resources is an emerging science. A final, once and for all 'inventory' of 
any mineral resource is nonsense. Mineral reserves and resources are dynamic quantities and 
must constantly be appraised. As known deposits are exhausted, unknown deposits are 
discovered, new extractive technologies and new uses are developed and new knowledge 
indicates new areas and new environments which are favorable for mineral exploration." 

Many of the minerals of the California Desert are considered important to our nation's security. Those 
are shown on Table 1 with a ■ or • and are discussed in detail below. 



STRATEGIC AND CRITICAL MATERIALS 

The Strategic and Critical Materials Stock Piling Act (50 U.S.C. 98 et seq.) as amended in 1989 by the 
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Years 1990 and 1991 (P.L 101-189) mandates that specific 
quantities of certain materials be maintained in the National Defense Stockpile to avoid, if possible, 
dependence upon foreign supplies during a national emergency. These strategic and critical (S&C) 
materials are defined as "materials that (A) would be needed to supply the military, industrial, and 
essential civilian needs of the United States during a national emergency, and (B) are not found or 
produced in the United States in sufficient quantities to meet such need" where "the term 'national 
emergency' means a general declaration of emergency with respect to the national defense made by 
the President or by the Congress." Responsibility for management of the stockpile rests with the 
President subject to certain congressional approval. Executive Order 12626 transferred management 
authority to the Department of Defense, which must report to Congress every six months on the status 
of the stockpile regarding inventories, acquisitions and disposals, research and development, financial 
status, and development of domestic sources. From time to time the list of S&C materials may change 
depending upon many factors including state of the art technology, degree of import dependence, 
commodity substitution or predicted wartime vulnerability. 

Table 3 is a list of minerals or elements which are encompassed by the list of Strategic and Critical 
commodities (October, 1990, Department of Defense). Each S&C commodity may not be specifically 
as listed but production of the mineral or element affects the production/manufacture of the specific 
commodity and therefore its import dependence. The actual S&C mineral commodity is often a certain 
grade of material which may be a mineral or is produced from a mineral. 



10 



The Defense Production Act of 1950 (22 U.S.C. 2423) was amended in 1980 to include "energy" as a 
strategic material. This specifically includes petroleum, fossil fuels and other natural substances. In 
addition, several commodities that do not meet the definition for S&C materials due to adequate current 
domestic production from limited sources are stockpiled because they have significant military or 
industrial importance. 

TABLE 3 
"Minerals" Designated Strategic and Critical for Certain Commodity Grades 

(October 1990) 



1. 


Aluminum/Bauxite 


2. 


Antimony 


3. 


Asbestos 


4. 


Beryllium/Beryl 


5. 


Bismuth 


6. 


Cadmium 


7. 


Chromium/Chromite 


8. 


Cobalt 


9. 


Columbian (Niobium) 


10. 


Copper 


11. 


Diamond 


12. 


Fluorspar 


13. 


Germanium 


14. 


Graphite 


15. 


Indium 


16. 


Lead 


17. 


Manganese 



18. 


Mercury 


19. 


Mica 


20. 


Molybdenum 


21. 


Nickel 


22. 


Platinum Group Metals 


23. 


Quartz crystals 


24. 


Rutile 


25. 


Sapphire/Ruby (Corundum) 


26. 


Silver 


27. 


Talc 


28. 


Tantalum 


29. 


Thorium 


30. 


Tin 


31. 


Titanium 


32. 


Tungsten 


33. 


Vanadium 


34. 


Zinc 



Undesignated Minerals Contained in National Stockpile for Certain Grades 

(October 1990) 

1. Asbestos (crocidolite) 4. Mica 

2. Celestite (strontium) 5. Rare Earths 

3. Kyanite 6. Talc 



A significant aspect of the 1989 amendments (Public Law 101-189) is the mandate for development of 
domestic sources of supply of strategic and critical materials through research and development, 
recycling, incentives to domestic producers, conservation and substitutions. This illustrates the intent 
of Congress to investigate all means to develop domestic sources. Withdrawal of public lands that have 
a potential for the occurrence of S&C minerals from mineral exploration and development could seriously 
affect future domestic supplies. Evaluation and exploration for mineral resources requires several years 
of lead time prior to beginning mining operations. 

The events occurring in the Middle East have clearly shown that even a moderate reliance upon foreign 
sources of materials can have very significant consequences to the economy and lifestyle of the United 

11 



States. An actual national emergency could prove much more serious if the supply of several materials 
is interrupted. Figure 1, page 13, depicts the 1989 import reliance of the United States on foreign 
sources of selected non-fuel mineral commodities as determined by BOM in Mineral Commodity 
Summaries 1990. 



MINERALS IN THE WILDERNESS STUDY PROCESS 

Arguments used by Dr. W. Thomas Goerold and others to support wilderness or national park 
designation of WSAs recommended unsuitable by the BLM have alleged: 1) that nearly all economic 
reserves have been excluded from WSAs, 2) that mineral resources which might be within WSAs will 
be available for mineral development through "valid existing rights," and 3) that nearly all mineral 
resources of the CDCA have been discovered. These arguments are not supported by the facts. 

Wilderness Study Areas were just that: study areas. Section 603 of FLPMA directed that all public lands 
of the U.S. be inventoried to determine if they met certain minimum criteria and, if so, be delineated 
as WSAs. Resource values were then evaluated to determine each WSAs suitability for wilderness 
designation. The minimum requirements were: 

1 . Size. "... those roadless areas of five thousand acres or more and roadless islands of the 
public lands, identified ... as having wilderness characteristics described in the Wilderness Act 
of September 3, 1964 . . . ". 

2. Naturalness. The imprint of man's work must be substantially unnoticeable. 

3. And either: 

a. An outstanding opportunity for solitude, or 

b. An outstanding opportunity for a primitive and unconfined type of recreation. 

Wilderness values, not mineral resources, were considered in the delineation of the WSA boundaries. 
WSA boundaries were drawn "at the limits of the substantial imprint of man" to ensure that the largest 
possible area was included in each of the study areas. In many WSAs, the "imprints" of man, such as, 
old mines, exploration sites, unmaintained roads, old buildings and other structures associated with 
mineral exploration and development were included within the boundaries. Areas of active exploration 
were often included in WSAs. Larger operations which were substantially noticeable were 
"cherrystemmed" out of WSAs because of their surface operations, not because of the associated 
mineral resources. Known mineral reserves associated with many active mining operations extend into 
adjacent WSAs. Only after the WSA boundaries were delineated were any other resource values 
considered, studied or evaluated. Although the surface disturbance of nearly all operating mines was 
excluded from WSAs, mineral resources were often included. 



12 



FIGURE 1 



1989 NET IMPORT RELIANCE e 1 
OF SELECTED NONFUEL MINERAL MATERIALS 
AS A PERCENT OF APPARENT CONSUMPTION 2 



from: 



ARSENIC 

CESIUM 

COLUMBIUM (niobium) 

MANGANESE 

MICA (sheet) 

RUBIDIUM 

STRONTIUM (ceiestite) 

THALLIUM 

GEM STONES (natural & synthetic) 

BAUXITE & ALUMINA 

DIAMOND (industrial stones) 

PLATINUM-GROUP METALS 

FLUORSPAR 

COBALT 

TANTALUM 

CHROMIUM 

BARITE 

TIN 

TUNGSTEN 

POTASH 

ASBESTOS 

NICKEL 

ZINC 

ANTIMONY 

SELENIUM 

CADMIUM 

IODINE 

STONE (dimension) 

PUMICE & PUMICITE 

PEAT 

GYPSUM 

BERYLLIUM 

SILICON 

QUARTZ CRYSTAL (Industrial) 

IRON ORE 

MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS 

CEMENT 

SODIUM SULFATE 

NITROGEN 

IRON & STEEL 

ZIRCONIUM 

COPPER 

LEAD 

SALT 

SULFUR 



100 



100 



100 



100 



100 



100 



100 



100 



99 



97 



95 



94 



91 



86 



85 



79 



77 



73 



73 



72 



65 



65 



Mineral Commodity Summaries, 1990, Bureau of Mines 

Major Sources (1985-88) 

France, Sweden. Mexico, Canada 

Canada, Fed. Rep. of Germany 

Brazil, Canada, Thailand 

Rep. of South Africa, Gabon. France 

India, Belgium, France, Japan 

Canada 

Mexico, Spain 

Bel.-Lux.. U.K., Fed. Rep. of Germany, France 

Belgium, Israel, India, Rep. of South Africa 

Australia, Guinea, Jamaica, Suriname 

Ireland, U.K., Rep. of South Africa, Zaire 

Rep. of South Africa, U.K., U.S.S.R. 

Mexico, Rep. of South Africa, China, Spain 

Zaire, Zambia, Canada, Norway 

Thailand, Brazil, Canada, Australia 

Rep. of South Africa, Turkey, Zimbabwe, Yugoslavia 

China, India, Morocco 

Brazil, China, Indonesia, Malaysia 

China, Bolivia, Fed. Rep. of Germany, Canada 

Canada, Israel, U.S.S.R., German Dem. Rep. 

Canada, Rep. of South Africa 

Canada, Norway, Australia, Dominican Republic 

Canada, Mexico, Spain, Peru 

China, Rep. of South Africa, Mexico, Hong Kong 

Canada, U.K., Japan, Bel.-Lux. 

Canada, Australia, Mexico, Fed. Rep. of Germany 

Japan, Chile 

Italy, Spain, Canada, Taiwan 

Greece, Italy 

Canada 

Canada, Mexico, Spain 

Brazil, China, France, Rep. of South Africa 

Brazil, Canada, Norway, Venezuela 

Brazil, Namibia 

Canada, Brazil, Venezuela, Liberia 

Greece, China, Canada, Ireland 

Mexico, Canada, Spain, Greece 

Canada, Mexico 

Canada, U.S.S.R., Trinidad & Tobago, Mexico 

EC, Japan, Canada, Rep. of Korea 

Australia, Rep. of South Africa, Argentina, Canada 

Canada, Chile, Peru, Zaire 

Canada, Mexico, Australia, Peru 

Canada, Mexico, Bahamas, Chile 

Canada, Mexico 



_6i| 



59 



56 



56 



48 

3 



41 



37 



23 



23 



22 



20 



20 



17 



16 



14 



13 



13 



8 



•Estimated. 

|Net import reliance - imports - exports + adjustments for Government and industry stock changes. 
Apparent consumption . U.S. primary + secondary production + net import reliance. 

NOTE: 

For a number of minerals, net import reliance data are withheld or incomplete. However, commodities for which sufficient data are available to indicate 
a significant degree of import dependency include: andalusite( Republic of South Africa), bismuth (Mexico. Belgium, Peru, United Kingdom), graphite 
(Mexico, China, Brazil, Madagascar), ilmenite (Australia, Canada, Republic of South Africa), mercury (Spain, China, Turkey, Japan), pyrophyllite. 
wonder stone (Republic of South Africa), rhenium (Chile, Federal Republic of Germany), rutile (Australia. Republic of South Africa. Sierra Leone), 
tellurium (Canada. United Kingdom, Japan, Philippines), and vanadium (Republic of South Africa. South America. European Community. Austria. 



13 



It is also misleading to say that all valid mining claims will be protected by "valid existing rights" after 
wilderness designation. Appendix III is a compilation of mining claims located within WSAs of California, 
as of early 1988. The mere existence of a mining claim does not accord a miner with "valid existing 
rights." BLM must follow certain procedures in determining the existence of valid existing rights for each 
claim. (See Appendix IV.) The miner may have a promising prospect but unless he can prove an 
economic ore body at the time of withdrawal, the claim will be canceled and consequently a future 
economic venture could be precluded. Several considerations are involved which may significantly 
impede further development and the ability of claims to pass the valid existing rights test. Even if the 
test for valid existing rights can be met, there are additional burdens that will be placed on the operator. 
These include: 

1) Added restrictions (as experienced in the establishment of Death Valley National 
Monument): 

a. Additional environmental constraints regarding noise and visual impacts. 

b. Additional access constraints requiring higher transportation costs for equipment and 
mined material. 

c. Limits on expansion of existing mine and facilities resulting in early shut-down and loss 
of financial gain and incentive. 

d. Limits on type and size of mining equipment resulting in increased costs to the 
operator. 

2) Limits on the appropriation and development of water sources requiring increased 
expenditures to import water to the mine or processing site. Mining operations need water 
to process ore, provide drinkable water for employees, etc. 

3) Limits on future exploration activities. 

Study of the mineral resources of WSAs has been a dynamic, ongoing process over a period of years. 
Every attempt was made to equate the mineral potentials of all WSAs (Appendix II) to a single timeline. 
However, because of the variable nature of geologic data and evaluation, inconsistencies can and do 
exist between them. Geologic evaluations continue, even now, as part of the multiple resource 
management process. That is the nature of geologic evaluations. Geology is not an exact science due 
to the limited amount of data available. Geologic inferences must constantly be made based upon the 
amount of current information available. As the amount of data changes so might the geologic 
interpretations. As economic conditions and limitations change so do the amounts and types of 
acquired geologic data. For example, with the energy crisis, the escalating selling price of crude oil 
altered the economic depths of production. Deeper exploration limits resulted in new discoveries in 
areas of previously unrewarding exploration activities. Oil and gas production changed from a short-term 
crisis to a short-term glut. This is not a unique phenomenon. Our economy, technology and mineral 
resource needs have changed many times during the past several decades. 



14 



The inference that 100+ years of exploration has discovered all the mineral deposits of the California 
Desert is not based upon fact. The issue here is that the geologic structures and mineral deposits that 
were discovered and mined in the past were those high grade occurrences visible at the surface. With 
the new technologies available today, it is becoming more feasible to explore for and recover low grade 
disseminated minerals at the surface and subsurface. Wilderness designation of all WSAs of the CDCA 
would exclude mineral exploration and development and would eliminate much of the best place in the 
United States to look for mineral deposits, both metallic and non-metallic. Sub-surface exploration has 
not been conducted in most of the California Desert. Only the location of known mineral deposits is 
apparent. 

When known mineral deposits are depleted the world will need new sources of mineral commodities. 
Decreasing supplies will probably lead to price increases and the economic justification to mine lower 
grade deposits at greater depths. No one can accurately predict which mineral commodities may be 
of greatest value years in the future. As technology and economics change, the ore deposits of the 
future may be quite different from today. 

All resource values were carefully weighed to determine the suitability of each WSA for wilderness 
designation. Many specific interest groups had input into the study process. In some instances, 
management decisions were made that were contrary to the preferences of geologists and engineers 
involved with this study process and several WSAs are being recommended suitable for wilderness that 
contain significant mineral resource potential. Wilderness values for these areas were determined to be 
superior to all other resource values, and BLM land management specialists concluded that the areas 
could be managed as wilderness. In general, WSAs with both high wilderness values and high mineral 
resource values were recommended suitable for wilderness designation by BLM. 



MINERALS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 

Mineral resources, the very basis of our lives and technology, are a part of the earth. This leads to one 
inescapable consequence: to use them we must mine them. If roads and buildings, cars, planes and 
paper are necessary, then also, are gravel pits and mines. To use something from the earth requires 
its extraction, a hole. There is no alternative. The sentiment has become "do it elsewhere," but this 
is not a choice because minerals can only be extracted where they exist. It is not a question of 
preserve it or destroy it, but rather, a choice of responsible management of all natural resources. 

BLM, with other state and local regulatory agencies, endeavors to minimize impacts to, and ultimately 
reclaim, as many other natural resources as is possible and practical. Mineral exploration activities are 
easily regulated and reclaimed, without significant, unnecessary and undue degradation. Mining activity 
beyond exploration will never occur in any area which does not host an economic mineral deposit. 

15 



Mining activities are controlled by stringent federal and state laws, regulations and policy, including strict 
requirements for reclamation bonding, inspection and enforcement. Mining is also controlled by BLM's 
surface management policies of the multiple-use class guidelines of the California Desert Plan. An 
operator must receive approval by BLM and state or local agencies on a plan of operations before any 
development activity may be undertaken. Environmental impacts are assessed by specialists and 
appropriate stipulations and mitigation measures are included as a condition to plan approval. Public 
involvement in the study and approval process ensures that local values are fully considered. 

Mined Land Reclamation is now a degreed science embracing many natural resource specialties. 
Industry reclamation specialists are rapidly developing procedures which can minimize the impacts of 
completed mining operations. Government and industry are applying the concepts of slope stabilization, 
artificial rock coloration, creative rock placement and revegetation with native species. The word 
"abandonment" now applies to the orderly procedure associated with decommissioning a mining 
operation, not the mining industry's legacy. 



THE COST OF MINERAL WITHDRAWAL 

Withdrawing large portions of the California Desert from mineral exploration and development for 
preservation as national parks or wilderness would be costly. The desert is recognized as a geologic 
storehouse of mineral wealth and contains a variety of mineral deposits that are important to both local 
and national economies, as well as, the nation's security. 

Within the 25-million-acre CDCA there are over 6 million acres that are now withdrawn as parks and 
military reservations and are not available for mineral exploration. Private, state and other government 
land accounts for 7.2 million acres. The remainder, approximately 11.8 million acres, has been open 
to mineral exploration under various BLM land use classifications ranging from intensive use (0.5 million 
acres) to WSAs (6.3 million acres). The BLM has identified 2.1 million acres suitable for wilderness 
designation within the CDCA. If these lands are designated as wilderness, 9.7 million acres of public 
lands would remain open for mineral exploration. Most of the lands remaining open for mineral 
exploration under BLM's recommendations (5.9 million acres) would be managed under the strict 
limitations imposed by the "limited use" land classification. In nearly all cases, private and state 
inholdings within areas designated as wilderness areas will be subject to wilderness restrictions and not 
available for mineral exploration. Acquisition of state and some private inholdings through exchange will 
further reduce the amount of BLM administered lands outside of wilderness areas. 

Because the California Desert is so highly mineralized, withdrawing large amounts of land from mineral 
exploration would have significant consequences. The extent of impacts is dependent upon the amount 
of land and mineral potential withdrawn from mineral entry. Some current operations will cease. Many 

16 



current operations will face curtailment when dwindling reserves are not replenished. Impacts to the 
economy of Southern California are obvious with up to $3 billion at stake, annually. Industry demand 
to explore the lands remaining open to mineral exploration will increase in an attempt to replenish 
reserves as production decreases. Royalty revenues paid to the U.S. for certain mineral commodities 
could decrease. Substantial public land management expenses will be incurred through valid existing 
rights determinations (Appendix IV) and land acquisition costs. Reserves that would supply our future 
needs will remain undiscovered. Competition within the mining industry will decrease as some 
companies go out of business. Import dependence will increase. A large portion of a possible major 
source of many S&C materials may no longer be available for exploration. Prices to the consumer will 
increase, particularly for those commodities serving a local market. 



CONCLUSION 

As part of the study of each WSA, BLM weighed both the value and manageability of wilderness 
characteristics. WSAs recommended suitable for wilderness designation by BLM will complement 
National Monuments and the National Wilderness Preservation System. WSAs not recommended by 
BLM for wilderness designation exhibit less than outstanding wilderness characteristics. In addition, BLM 
has conducted comprehensive evaluations of the mineral potential of all WSAs of the CDCA. BOM and 
USGS have evaluated the known mineral resources of only those areas recommended suitable for 
wilderness designation by BLM. The diverse mineral resources of the California Desert are important 
and make significant economic and commercial contributions to Southern California and the nation. The 
potential for future discoveries of mineral deposits is substantial. 

Our world is confronted with many challenges to protect the environment in which we live. There exists 
within America an eagerness to rally in support of these efforts. All are worthy causes but care must 
be exercised that other life values are not degraded without thorough consideration of the possible 
costs. Mineral resources are of tremendous value to our lives. We cannot overlook the importance of 
mineral resources. There must be a balance between needs and uses of the public resources. BLM's 
land management policies can provide appropriate protection of multiple resource values. 



17 



18 



APPENDIX I 



MAJOR USES OF THE MINERAL COMMODITIES OF THE CDCA 



COMMODITY 


USES 


Agate 


Primarily of interest to collectors and artisans. 


Alunite 


Used in the production of alum and some potash fertilizers, and as a source of 
aluminum and potassium 


Antimony 


A metal used in the manufacture of various anti-friction alloys, metal type, 
ammunition, corrosion resistent pipes and pumps, roofing sheets, solder, and 
batteries. Also used in the manufacture of fireworks, matches and blasting caps. 
Salts are used in vulcanizing rubber, in making glass, textiles, flame retardants, 
pharmaceutical and as a pigment. 


Arsenic 


Metallic arsenic is used in alloys. White arsenic is used in medicines, insecticides, 
preservatives, pigments, glass, paint and fireworks. Other uses include semi- 
conductor chips, integrated circuits, solar cells, light emitting diodes, etc. 


Barite - (Barium minerals) 


Used in the manufacture of glass, plastics, synthetic rubber, ceramics, industrial 
ceramics and pigments. Extensively used as filler in such products as bristol- 
board, heavy printing paper, playing cards, rope finishes, brake linings, clutch 
facings, plastics, linoleum and paint. Used as a concrete aggregate to weight 
down pipelines, nuclear reactor shields and as a paving material. Used in 
medicine for x-rays and by the chemical industry in various compounds for 
reagents and catalysts (such as in sugar refining, waterproofing and fireproofing 
textiles, in various drugs, pyro-technics, pesticides, case hardening of steel and 
phosphors for florescent lamps). Also used as welding flux, as additives to oil and 
grease, in well drilling as a drilling fluid weighting agent, in the refining .and 
recovery of magnesium, indium and zinc and in alloys. Of particular interest in 
high temperature super conductor research. 


Beryllium 


Used in the nuclear industry and by the aircraft industry to make lightweight, very 
strong alloys. Salts are used in fluorescent lamps and x-ray tubes, high density 
electronic circuits, satellite structures, space telescopes, mirrors, X-ray windows 
and as a deoxidizer in the bronze industry. Beryl is a semi-precious gemstone. 


Bismuth 


Used in low fusion point and anti-friction alloys. Also used in medicines and cos- 
metics. Applications in X-Ray photography. Of particular interest in high 
temperature super conductor research. 


Borates 


Principal source of boric acid. Used as a raw material in the glass and ceramic 
industries. Also used as or in detergents, bleaches, fertilizers, herbicides, 
pharmaceutical, cosmetics, antifreeze compounds, adhesives, solvents, tanning 
agents, fire retardants, wood preservatives, enamels and paints, welding flux, and 
specialty metals, alloys and computer components. Also used as fuel additives, 
abrasives, embalming fluid, nuclear reactor control rods and shielding. Valuable 
for flameproofing plastics and in the steel manufacturing process. Boron is very 
important as rocket fuel and as an ingredient in very strong alloys. 


Calcium Chloride 


As a deliquescent salt (capable of becoming liquid by absorbing moisture from 
the air), CaCI is used as a drying and dehumidifying agent and in controlling 
dust, melting snow and ice on roads. Also used as a cement setting agent, 
especially in the drilling industry. 


Chromium 


Important in steel alloys, stainless steel and chrome plating. Used in the 
manufacture of some paints, in leather tanning and in mordants. 


Cinders 


Used as an aggregate in highway construction, concrete and railroad ballast. 
Used as an abrasive. Popular as a landscaping component. 



20 



COMMODITY 


USES 


Clays 


The term "clay" is one of the most complicated natural raw materials to define 
because of its breadth of use. "Clay" describes a diverse group of fine grained 
minerals - the so called clay minerals which include kaolinitic clays that embrace 
the refined kaolin and halloysite minerals as well as the kaolin-containing ball clay 
and refractory clay rock-based products; smectite clays that are largely dominated 
by bentonite (in the form of natural and chemically treated forms of montmoril- 
lonite), hectorite and saponite; the palyorskite-sepiolite clay group; and clays and 
clay products that comprise the structural clays used for making bricks, pipes and 
tiles for the construction industry. 


Kaolinite 


A clay used for the manufacture of paper, ceramics, paint, rubber and plastics. 
Also used as refractories (particularly with basic oxygen steelmaking), by the 
chemical industry in the manufacture of catalysts and by the pharmaceutical 
industry in the manufacture of medicines. Other uses include flexible floor tiles, 
carpet backing, film, tape, cable insulation, fillers, parts for automobile catalytic 
converters, etc. 


Bentonite 


A clay used in well drilling as a drilling mud, as a bond for foundry sand and in 
iron-ore pelletizing. Used as a filtering agent for purifying water, wine, etc; as a 
water impedance for lining reservoirs, irrigation ditches, etc.; as an ingredient in 
cosmetics, animal feed, copy paper, pharmaceutical, etc; as a filler in paint, 
plastic and putty; as an additive to ceramics; as a catalyst; as a carrier for 
pesticides; as a soil conditioner; as an aggregate in concrete; and as a slurry for 
fighting forest fires. Also used in the manufacture of wallpaper; in bleaching oils 
and drycleaning fluids; as an absorbent for oil, grease, water, chemicals, etc.; and 
as a pet litter. 


Hectorite 


An unusual and rare magnesium-lithium clay mineral with much sought after 
special physical properties that impart a delicate "house of cards' structure to 
liquid systems to form a gel. The diverse applications of this clay include non- 
drip emulsion paints, aggregate coatings, electro-deposition paints, cosmetics and 
toiletries, household products, anti-static agents, vitreous enamels, aerosols, 
adhesives, beer and wine clarification, rubber latex, cement/fly ash grouts and the 
important organoclad hectorites which provide superior performance levels for 
innumerable specialty uses. 


Sepiolite 


Applications include environmental deodorants, catalyst and pesticide carriers, 
ceramics and porcelain, asphalt coatings, paints, pharmaceutical, decolorizing 
agents, filter aids, anti-caking agents, plastisols, rubber, animal nutrition, deter- 
gents, cosmetics, agriculture, grease thickeners, carbonless copy paper, drilling 
fluids, etc. 


Cobalt 


Primarily used in superalloys for industrial and aircraft gas turbine engines; high- 
strength, heat-resisting and magnetic steel alloys; other alloys; cutting and wear 
resistant materials; tools; catalysts; and paint driers. Other uses include glass 
decolorizers, pigments, feed or nutritive additives, mill products, welding 
materials, etc. 


Copper 


Essential trace element for plants and used as fertilizer to stimulate crop produc- 
tion (sulfate, oxide or in chelated form). Several ores of copper (chalcocite, 
chalcopyrite and cuprite) are considered to be among the most important mineral 
sources from which other products originate. Widely used for electrical and 
plumbing purposes. Also used in alloys (brass, bronze and a vibration resistant 
alloy with beryllium) and as construction sheet material. Of particular interest in 
high temperature super conductor research. 


Decorative Building Stone, 
Dimension stone, sunburst 
pebbles, lava rock, etc. 


Used in construction and landscaping. 


Dolomite 


Used as structural and ornamental stone, in ceramics and glass manufacture, as 
a refractory and flux, by the chemical industry in the preparation of magnesium 
salts and as a source of fertilizer magnesium. 



21 



COMMODITY 


USES 


Epidote 


Used in making terrazzo chips for making colorful concrete floors. 


Feldspar 


Used in manufacture of glass, porcelain enamel and many ceramic products 
(pottery, plumbing fixtures, electrical porcelain, tile, dinnerware, etc). Used as a 
flux; as a filler in latex, urethane and acrylic paints; as an abrasive cleaner and 
polisher. Minor use as decorative building stone. 


Fluorite 


Many uses including abrasives, ceramics, chemicals, fluorinated hydrocarbons, 
fluxes, glass manufacture, hydrofluoric acid, and sometimes for lenses and 
prisms. 


Gallium 


A rare metallic element that is widely distributed in nature but occurs only in tiny 
quantities in any of the minerals that contain it such as zincores, banxite, and 
certain iron ores. Use as a backing for special optical mirrors, in high temperature 
thermometers, as a nonpoisonous substitute for mercury in dental alloys. Also 
used in optoelectrical devices (lasers, solar cells, photo detectors) and integrated 
circuits. 


Garnet - Iron-Aluminum Silicate 
minerals 


Used to manufacture coated abrasive products (sand paper etc.); in grinding and 
lapping of glass, metals, ceramics, plastics; for sandblasting; and grinding wheels 
and buffing compounds. Gemstone. 


Gemstones (semi-precious) 


Primarily of interest to collectors and artisans. 


Geothermal energy 


Used for electrical generation or direct heating purposes. 


Gold 


Used in jewelry, electronics, as a base for monetary systems worldwide, and as an 
alloy with other metals in dentistry. 


Green Schist 


A metamorphic rock rich in ferro-magnesium minerals. 


Gypsum 


Used in cement, plaster of paris, wallboard, stucco, pottery, as a soil conditioner, 
fertilizer and as an additive to animal feeds. Also used as filler material in paints, 
paper, cotton goods and pesticides. Has applications in well drilling (coagulates 
clay and thins mud). 


Halite (salt) 


A vital ingredient in human and animal diets. Very important in the chemical 
industry for the preparation of soda, hydrochloric acid, caustic soda and sodium. 
Used in food processing and as a preservative. Used as a drilling fluid additive. 


Iron 


A myriad important uses makes iron the least expensive and most widely used 
metal. The construction industry ultimately is the greatest consumer of iron and 
steel products in the form of sheet metal, beams, rebar, nails, bolts, screws, wire, 
pipes, hardware, fixtures, ornaments, etc. The automobile and other transporta- 
tion industries are obvious important users of iron and steel, as are machinery and 
tool builders. Cans and containers, household and office products, weapons, 
alloys, and sundry other items demonstrate the wide uses for iron and steel. Iron 
is an important micronutrient used in fertilizers and dietary supplements. Iron is 
also used by chemical and other industries. 


Jade 


A hard greenish gemstone of primary importance to collectors and artisans. 


Kyanite 


Used for high temperature porcelain products, perfect electrical insulators and 
acid resistent products. Mined for a source of A^Oj for manufacturing high 
temperature mortar and cement. 


Lead 


Used in automobile batteries, gasoline additives and tanks, solder, seals, bearings, 
electrical parts, electronics, ammunition, television glass, construction, commu- 
nications, protective coatings, ballast or weights, containers, type metal, alloys, 
foil, wire, kame, glass, etc. 


Limestone 


Used in the manufacture of cement and mortar; as building stone or aggregate; 
as a flux; in lithography and ceramic products, as well as other uses. 



22 



COMMODITY 


USES 


Lithium 


Marketed in three forms: metal, ore and chemical compounds. As an ore is used 
by the glass, ceramic and porcelain enamel industries. As a metal is important in 
nonferrous metallurgy particularly for light weight aluminum alloys for the aircraft 
and space industries. Various chemical compounds are important for the ceramic 
and glass industries, aluminum industry, chemotherapeutic treatment, batteries, 
lithium based lubricants and greases, air regeneration systems for space 
programs, refrigeration and air conditioning systems, and as a flux. Miscellaneous 
applications include sanitation and bleaching, hydrogen generation, catalysis, 
vitamin synthesis, synthetic rubber and applications in nuclear rectors. 


Magnesium 


Uses include magnesium metal for production of aluminum alloys used in 
packaging, castings and wrought products, reducing agents, cathode protection, 
for production of nodular cast iron, refractors, fluxes, filler, insulation, cements, 
decolorants, fertilizers, computer components and chemicals. 


Manganese 


Primarily used in the ferro-alloy industry, especially in steel and alloy manufacture 
of products used in construction, machinery and transportation. Also used in 
manufacture of many items including chemicals, disinfectants, glass, fertilizers, 
colored bricks, tile, paints and as a flux. Very important in making dry cell batter- 
ies. 


Mercury 


As a metal used in the amalgamation process for recovering gold and silver, in 
thermometers, barometers, scientific and electrical equipment, dental amalgams, 
paints, industrial control instruments. Also used in the electrolytic production of 
chlorine and caustic soda. 


Molybdenum 


Predominately used in the manufacture of special steel alloys. Also used in 
lubricants and greases, chemicals and fertilizers, pigments and catalysts. 


Muscovite Mica 


Applications in well drilling (prevention of lost circulation). Used as an insulating 
and dielectric material in electronic equipment; as a decorative finish on concrete, 
brick, etc.; as artificial snow for Christmas ornaments; in the manufacture of 
roofing and shingles; as a protective coating on wires, cables, etc; as a filler in 
asphalt, enamels, mastics, cements and adhesives; to improve texture of paints, 
plaster and other products; in wallboard joint cements to eliminate cracking and 
shrinking; as a dry lubricant. Fine mica is used for a variety of applications in 
such products as rubber, paper, fireproof paints, porcelain and plastics. 


Nickel 


Used in stainless and alloy steel manufacture, non-ferrous alloys, electrical 
equipment, petroleum refining, household appliances, chemicals and coins. Of 
particular interest in high temperature super conductor research. 


Oil and Gas 


An energy source and a major component of the world market system. Oil is 
distilled into gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel, paraffin, petrochemicals, etc. Gas is 
used mainly as a fuel for heating homes and in power plants to produce 
electricity. 


Perlite 


Highly valued as a lightweight aggregate in such products as insulation boards, 
plaster, concrete, asphalt, etc. Used as an insulating material in construction; in 
foundry applications; in water filtration systems; in processing resins, chemicals 
and pharmaceutical; as a pesticides carrier; as a soil conditioner; in nursery stock 
packaging; as a filler in paints, enamels, glazes, plastics, resins and rubber; as a 
catalyst in chemical reactions; as an abrasive; and as an agent in mixtures for oil 
well cementing. 


Phosphate 


Principal use is for fertilizer but is also used to produce phosphorus and phospho- 
ric acid for industrial and food grade chemicals. 


Platinum Group Metals 


Used as a catalyst in the automotive, .chemical, and petroleum industries. Also 
used in chemical apparatus, electrical equipment, jewelry, dentistry, surgical 
instruments, pyrometry and photography. 


Potash (potassium) 


Used as a source of potassium for fertilizers and various applications in the 
chemical industry. 



23 



COMMODITY 


USES 


Pozzolan 


Term applied to a variety of natural and manufactured materials which impart 
specific under water hardening properties to cement. 


Pumice 


Used as an abrasive, an aggregate, building stone and as filler for paints, etc. 


Pyrophyllite 


Used in refractors, rubber, ceramics, pesticides, plastics, paint, roofing, bleaching 
powder, textiles, cordage, wallboard and cosmetics. 


Quartzite 


Used as a building stone, refractories and in the manufacture of glass and 
ceramics. 


Silica - Quartz sand 


Used extensively in casting steel, iron and other alloys. Also used in the manufac- 
ture of glass. 


Rare Earth Minerals 


Fourteen metals compose the rare earth elements which are a transition series 
with atomic numbers 57 thru 71. The major uses of the rare earths are as catalysts 
for petroleum cracking, in the production of specialty alloys and ceramics, 
polishing compounds, glass additives, pigments for coloring ceramic tiles, as 
carbon-arc electrodes to provide incandescent white light (phosphors) and various 
other very specialized uses, particularly in the military. Recent technological 
advances have made them attractive for use In super conducting ceramic alloys. 


Cerium 


A rare earth element used in magnets, compounds for precision glass polishing, 
catalytic converter parts, phosphors, jet engine super alloys and glass decolorizer. 


Lanthanum 


A rare earth element used as a catalyst for petroleum cracking, for high tempera- 
ture super conductor research, phosphors, jet engine super alloys. 


Neodymium 


A rare earth element used in high-strength permanent magnets, high temperature 
superconductor research, color television face plates, ceramic capacitor stabiliza- 
tion and lasers. 


Praseodymium 


A rare earth element used predominately in ceramics. 


Samarium 


A rare earth element used in high-strength permanent magnets, high temperature 
super conductors and satellite components. 


Gadolinium 


A rare earth element used high temperature super conductors, phosphors, satellite 
components, lasers, computer components, microwave filtration and nuclear 
reactor control rods. 


Europium 


A rare earth element used high temperature super conductors and phosphors. 


Terbium 


A rare earth element used for strong high-temperature refectories, lamps, high 
temperature resistant windows and lenses, color television phosphors, permanent 
magnets, alloys, lasers and as a catalyst for petroleum cracking. Of particular 
interest in high temperature super conductor research, submarine sonar and super 
alloys for jet fighters. 


Sand, Gravel and 
Crushed Rock 


A very high demand product used extensively within local areas for construction 
purposes such as aggregate in concrete and asphalt, roadbed construction and 
maintenance, fill, landscaping material, rip-rap along streams and rivers, etc. 


Silver 


Used as the major component of photographic films, in electrical and electronic 
products, in coins, jewelry, dinnerware, the chemical industry, alloys, etc. 


Sodium Carbonate (Soda Ash) 


Used in the manufacture of sodium compounds such as bicarbonate, cyanide, 
perborate, nitrate and silicate. Soda ash is used in the manufacture of glass, 
fiberglass insulation, chemicals, soap and detergents, flue gas desulfurization, 
pulp and paper, water treatment, etc. Also used as an additive to well drilling 
fluids and in metallurgy. 


Sodium sulfate 


Necessary for the manufacture of pulp and paper. Used extensively in deter- 
gents, glass, dyes, foods and remedies. Also used to produce synthetic sponges 
and various sodium compounds. 



24 



COMMODITY 


USES 


Strontium 


Used for television picture tube manufacture, ferrite ceramic magnets for 
electronics, pyrotechnics, safety flares, pigments, fillers, electrolytics, greases, 
ceramics, high temperature super conductor research, soaps, alloys and pharma- 
ceutical. 


Sulfur 


Used for agricultural fertilizers, sulfuric acid, organic and inorganic chemicals, 
petroleum refining, metal mining recovery circuits, pyrotechnics, pharmaceutical, 
etc. 


Talc 


A very important material, responsible for many of the distinguishing character- 
istics of such products as: ceramics, paint, paper, cosmetics, plastics, roofing 
materials, petroleum and Automotive products and rubber. Used as a filler in 
many of the above and other products. Talc is also used in a variety of lubricants, 
as an undercoating, in dry fire extinguishing powders, for cereal polishing (rice, 
corn, barley) as a bleaching agent, to absorb odors from foods, floor wax, in water 
filtration systems, as leather treatment (oil absorption), in joint fillers and grouts, in 
insecticides, shoe polishes, welding rod coatings, printing inks, encapsulant for 
artillery shells, coating for Iron ore pellets in direct reduction processes and as a 
source of magnesium in plant foods. 


Thorium 


Used as a nuclear fuel. Also used In aerospace alloys, ceramics, incandescent 
lamp mantles, refractories, welding electrodes, etc. 


Tin 


Used for tin plate, solders and alloys in cans and containers and for electrical 
construction and transportation uses. 


Titanium 


Used extensively in jet engines, airframes, space and missile applications, the 
chemical industry, power generation, medicine and ordnance. Titanium dioxide is 
used as a pigment for whitening paints, paper, rubber, plastics and other 
materials and as a welding rod coating. 


Trona - Sodium Carbonate 


Used extensively in glass manufacture, various inorganic and organic chemicals, 
detergents, petroleum, caustic soda, paper and has applications in metallurgy. 


Tufa 


Used locally for construction aggregate and landscaping. Some 'high grades' are 
used as fillers for paints, abrasives or other specialty uses. 


Tungsten 


Used as a hardening agent in the manufacture of tungsten-carbide tools and 
machinery for metalworking, mining, milling and construction purposes. Also 
used for lamp filaments, fireproofing and dying. 


Uranium 


Source of atomic energy. Used for coloring glass, in X-Ray photography, as a 
chemical reagent, weapons, etc. 


Vanadium 


Used as an alloying agent with iron to produce hardened steel and in producing 
titanium alloys for aerospace uses. Also used as a catalyst and pigment. 


Wollastonite (Calcium meta- 
silicate) 


Widely used in the ceramic industry to improve the mechanical properties of 
ceramic ware and reduce warping and cracking. Used in paint manufacture for 
high quality white and pastel shades, as a filler and a reinforcing agent with good 
thermal properties. Also used in manufacture of plastics and rubber, as an 
abrasive, in adhesives, for welding rods and to manufacture "mineral wool" for a 
variety of insulation products. Also used ornamentally. 


Yttrium 


Used in color televisions and computer monitors, laser crystals and glass, 
advanced ceramic parts and coatings, super alloys, emission control catalyst 
substrates, heating elements, synthetic garnets for electronic applications and in 
gemstone substitutes. A functioning element of some rare earth alloys and 
compounds and is usually grouped with the rare earths. 



25 



COMMODITY 


USES 


Zeolites 


Used as molecular sieves to aid in environmental cleanup and pollution control 
(iron exchangers used in removal of radioactive strontium and cesium and to 
extract ammonium ions from sewage and agricultural effluents). As acid resistant 
absorbents in gas drying and purification, zeolites are important in separation of 
oxygen and nitrogen from air (oxygen used for smelling, aeration and pollution 
control and nitrogen used in wineries and breweries). Also used as filler in paper, 
cements and concretes; as an aggregate in fertilizer and soil conditioners; and as 
dietary supplements in animal nutrition. 


Zinc 


Used in galvanizing steel products to prevent corrosion; in alloys (especially 
bronze and brass); in the chemical industry and agriculture; as a component in 
the manufacture of rubber and paints. 


Zirconium 


Due to its high refectory value, high conductivity, high density, low expansion and 
resistance to being wetted by molten metal, Zircon is used in foundry sands, 
refractories, ceramics, abrasives and in bricks and blocks for glass furnaces. 
Zirconium compounds have applications as ferro-alloys, in optical fibers, ceramics, 
jewelry, glazes, enamels, paints, pharmaceutical, abrasives, water repellents, 
lighting equipment, leather tanning agents and waxes. Zirconium in metallic form 
is useful in nuclear reactor industry (corrosion resistance and structural stability at 
high temps and alloying properties and specific neutron absorption charac- 
teristics) and in super alloys. 



26 



Importance of Industrial Minerals 
in Everyday Life 



By 

HAL McVEY, Consulting Minerals Geologist 

Mineral Marketing, Inc. 

Rough & Ready, California 



The significance of nonmetollic minerals — 
termed "industrial minerals" — is little recognized 
by the vast majority of Colifornions. According to 
a U.S. Bureau of Mines estimate, the average 
American uses about one million pounds of 
industrial minerals, such as limestone, clay, and 
aggregate, over the period of a lifetime. The fol- 
lowing article was first presented at the Industrial 
Minerals Conference at Marina Del Rey, 
California, February 15-16, 1989, and is reprinted 
here by permission from the author . . . editor. 

Few people realize the importance of 
industrial minerals in their everyday 
lives. Perhaps a trip through a normal 
working day will underscore our reliance 
upon these nonmetallic minerals. The 
products that contain industrial minerals 
or utilize industrial minerals in the manu- 
facturing process are highlighted in bold 
face. 

MORNING 

As we step out of bed in the morning, 
we place our feet on the carpet (calcium 
carbonate/limestone is used in the carpet 
backing). We find our way to the kitchen 
and switch on the electric light and the 
coffee pot, which are made of either glass 
or ceramics (both glass and ceramics 
are manufactured entirely from industrial 
minerals — silica sand, limestone, talc, 
lithium, borates, soda ash, and feldspar). 
In the kitchen, we stand on linoleum 
(calcium carbonate, clay, and wollastonite) 
or on ceramic tile. 




While the coffee is brewing, we sit 
down to read the newspaper. At the same 
time we realize we have to take a trip to- 
day, so we consult our Official Airline 
Guide and then have to refer to the Yellow 
Pages of the phone book for the number 
of the airline. (All of these papers are 
filled with kaolin clay and limestone: so- 
dium sulfate, lime and soda ash are used 
in the processing.) 



The coffee is ready and we have a 
piece of toast and sneak a piece of cake 
from last night's party (bakery items, 
such as bread, contain gypsum as an in- 
gredient and cake icing has a high con- 
tent of gypsum). The plate we are eating 
from is composed of glass, ceramics, or 
China (a special form of ceramics). We 
might want a full breakfast or contem- 
plate what we will have for lunch or for 
the evening meal. Regardless, all of the 
food that we eat everyday is grown and 
produced completely with industrial min- 
erals. (All fertilizers are composed of 
some combination of potash, phosphates, 
nitrogen, sulfur, and other minor min- 
erals. The acidity of soils must be regu- 
lated with gypsum, limestone, or sulfur. 
In fact, without industrial minerals there 
could be no modern-day agriculture as we 
know it.) 

Let's now start getting ready to go to 
work. We brush our teeth with toothpaste 
(calcium carbonate/limestone/sodium car- 
bonate). Women put on lipstick (calcium 
carbonate and talc) and powder (talcum) 
and men might use hair cream (calcium 
carbonate). Other forms of makeup 
would have various minerals as a constit- 
uent. The lavatory counter top in the 
bathroom where we are standing is syn- 
thetic marble or synthetic onyx (tita- 
nium dioxide, calcium carbonate and 
alumina hydrate). Sinks, lavatories, 
toilets, and similar fixtures throughout 
the house are kept shiny with cleansers 
(silica, pumice, diatomite, feldspars, and 
limestone). Kitchen and bathroom tiles 
are installed and kept in place and main- 
tain their waterproof condition with 
putty and caulking compounds (lime- 
stone and gypsum). 

Before we leave we brighten up our 
wardrobe with some form of jewelry 
(all precious and semi-precious stones — 
opal, amethyst, aquamarine, topaz, 
garnets, diamonds — are industrial min- 
erals). There is a less attractive task to 
do at the last minute, changing the kitty 
litter (attapulgite, montmorillonite, zeo- 
lites, diatomite, pumice, or volcanic ash). 




As we walk outside, we make a mental 
note that the composite roof needs re- 
pairs. (Fiberglass is composed of almost 
the same ingredients as regular glass — 
silica, borates, limestone, soda ash. and 
feldspar. Fiberglass and asphalt, along 
with lesser quantities of either talc, silica 
sand, or limestone, comprise composition 
roofing.) And. we are pleased to see that 
the new fiberglass siding on our home 
looks nice. As we get in the car, we think 
of the planting and gardening projects 
for this evening. In addition to fertilizers 
we will have to buy some soil amend- 
ments and planting mixes today. (Ver- 
miculite, perlite, gypsum, zeolites, or 
peat make for better growth.) 

ON THE ROAD 

Once we leave for work we are really 
immersed in industrial minerals. Our 
automobile is literally composed of in- 
dustrial minerals. Starting from the 
ground up. tires contain clay and calcium 
carbonate and the mag wheels are made 
from dolomite and magnesium. All of the 
glass in the car is made entirely from 
minerals; so is the fiberglass body now 
on many models. Many components in a 
car are made of composites, which are 
usually combinations of fiberglass and 
plastics. Plastics are manufactured from 
calcium carbonate, wollastonite, mica, 
talc, clays, and silica. As we drive to 
work, we are enjoying numerous indus- 
trial minerals — from the bumpers to 
the dashboard to the radiator cap and 
the floor mats. 



224 



CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY 



October 1989 



27 



The paint that makes our car so attrac- 
tive is composed of industrial minerals — 
titanium dioxide, kaolin clays, calcium 
carbonate, micas, talc, silica, wollastonite, 
and others. In fact, all paints that we 
will encounter today, from that on our 
house, to the stripe down the middle of 
the road, to the interior of our homes 
and offices, will be composed mainly of 
industrial minerals. 




Modern transportation is almost en- 
tirely dependent upon industrial minerals 
and this does not stop with the car. Gaso- 
line and lubricants depend on industrial 
minerals. The drill bit that was used 
originally to discover the crude oil was 
faced with industrial diamonds. Fluids, 
used for ease of well drilling, are almost 
entirely made from barite. bentonite, 
attapulgite. mica, and perlite. Clays and 
zeolites are necessary in the catalytic 
cracking process to produce gasoline 
and lubricants from crude petroleum. 

On our way to work we are literally 
riding on industrial minerals. Concrete 
pavement is composed of cement and 
aggregates. Aggregates are themselves 
industrial minerals — sand and gravel or 
crushed stone, such as limestone, dolo- 
mite, granite, or lava. Cement is manu- 
factured from limestone, gypsum, iron 
oxide, clays, and possibly pozzolan. Even 
asphaltic pavement (blacktop) contains 
industrial minerals as aggregates. 

AT WORK 

The building we are about to enter is 
made from or of industrial minerals. If it 
is a concrete or stone or brick building, 
it is made entirely from industrial 
minerals. If there are steel structural 
members, the steel production process 
required fluorspar for fluxing, bentonite 
for pelletizing, and perhaps chromite for 
hardening. The making of steel requires 
the use of high grade refractory bricks 
and shapes made from bauxite, chromite, 
zircon, silica, graphite, kyanite, andalu- 
site, sillimanite, and clays. Fiberglass 
batts may be used for insulation in our 
office buildings, just as they are in our 
homes. 

Upon entering the office building, we 
are often enclosed by wallboard or sheet- 



rock (gypsum with fire retardant addi- 
tives, such as clays, perlite, vermiculite, 
alumina hydrate, and borates) joined to- 
gether with joint cement (gypsum, mica, 
clays, and calcium carbonates). Certainly 
the plate glass windows are made en- 
tirely from industrial minerals. The 
floors or decks between floors are proba- 
bly made from concrete using lightweight 
aggregate (perlite, vermiculite, zeolites, 
or expanded shales). 

To begin our work, we may pick up a 
pencil (graphite and clays) and make a 
list of things to do. One of the first items 
is to send out a few invoices that are 
backed with self-contained carbon paper 
(bentonite or other clays or zeolites). 
There are some articles to be ordered so 
we pick up a catalog or magazine and 
unconsciously like the glossy feel of the 
fine paper, due to a high content of ka- 
olin clay or calcium carbonate along with 
titanium dioxide for extreme whiteness. 
Almost every sheet of paper that we use 
today was made with industrial minerals 
such as talc, or contains minerals as fill- 
ers and coaters. Even some inks contain 
calcium carbonate or other fillers. 

The morning has worn on and it is time 
for a break. In addition to the coffee in 
the coffee cup (remember it is made of 
industrial minerals), we decide to heat up 
a roll; and we place it in or on a micro- 
wavable container (plastics filled and 
reinforced with talc, calcium carbonate, 
titanium dioxide, or clays). 

While on break, we ponder what we 
will do for recreation during the week- 
end. Recreational equipment — golf 
clubs, tennis rackets, fishing rods, and 
skis — are all now commonly made from 
graphite or, a slightly "older" material, 
fiberglass. If we are planning a backpack- 
ing trip, our pack frame and pots and 
pans will be made of aluminum (all alu- 
minum, for whatever usage, originates 
with bauxite, one of the most widely uti- 
lized industrial minerals). If we use a 
camp light on our trip, the mantle will 
be made from an industrial mineral, 
thorium. 

Communications equipment employs 
numerous industrial minerals. The stan- 
dard product of the industry for many 
years has been the silicon chip, made 
from quartz or silica as the name implies. 
Optical fibers, made from glass, are 
replacing some copper wiring. The tele- 
vision screen or computer monitor is 
made of glass; but critical tubes also 
contain phosphors made from the rare 



earths or lanthanides. a family of industrial 
minerals. Even (he superconducting 
materials, now so much in the news, are 
manufactured from industrial minerals 
(yttrium, lanthanides, titanium, zircon- 
ium, and barite). 




EVENING 

After a hard day at the office, we 
drop in for refreshments with our friends. 
Fruit juice or, for the less temperate, a 
glass of wine or beer would be refreshing. 
All of these liquids are filtered through 
either perlite or diatomite in the purifying 
and clarifying processes. If we should 
add sugar to any of our drinks, we are 
enjoying the benefits of minerals since 
limestone and lime are basic to the pro- 
duction of sweeteners. And, of course, 
our refreshments will be served in 
ceramic mugs or glasses composed 
entirely of industrial minerals. 

Filtering and purification are major 
uses of the industrial minerals. Drinking 
water is purified and clarified by filter- 
ing through minerals, (limestone, lime, 
and salt). In waste water treatment 
plants, zeolites, soda ash, lime, and 
salt are used in the filtering process. 

Vegetable oils processing includes fil- 
tering through clays, perlite, or diatomite. 
Swimming pool water is filtered and 
purified by the same minerals. 

When we arrive back home, we are not 
yet through with exposure to our mineral 
friends. If we take medicine or pharma- 
ceuticals, we may chew antacid pills 
essentially made from calcium carbonate. 








CALIFORNIA GEOLOGY 



October 1989 



225 



28 



For upset stomachs there are Milk of 
Magnesia (magnesia/dolomite) or Ka- 
opectate (kaolin) and other medicines 
made from clays such as attapulgite. And, 
who can forget the lovely barium "cock- 
tail" (barite), which is consumed before 
being x-rayed for gastrointestinal diag- 
nosis. Then there is tincture of iodine 
(iodine) for all those cuts and bruises. 
The lithium that is used to treat mental 
disorders is an industrial mineral. 



Rounding out the picture of diverse 
uses of minerals are: abrasives for 
sandblasting, sandpaper for home or 
workshop, emery boards for filing 
fingernails, and polishing compounds 
for our silverware and other items. Abra- 
sives are made from pumice, diatomite, 
silica, garnet, corundum, and emery. 
Ornamental objects are also made from 
minerals: porcelain figurines (silica, 
limestone, borates, soda ash) for our 
what-not shelf and plaster of paris 
statuettes (gypsum) for our lawn. 



IN SUMMARY 

One of the most basic table ingredi- 
ents is an industrial mineral, namely salt 
(sodium chloride). This substance is so 
basic that it was historically used as a 
medium of trade or payment as implied in 
the word "salary." And, as a final use of 
minerals, an ode to our lives will be in- 
scribed on monumental stone (marble or 
granite) in the form of an elegy. *£ 



29 



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47 



ESTIMATED COST OF EXAMINATION OF MINING CLAIMS 
IN CALIFORNIA WSAS 

Examination of mining claims may involve one or more of the following actions. Total costs involved are 
dependent upon BLM findings and claimant action, such as ah appeal. 



MINING CLAIM EXAMINATION ACTIONS 


ACTION 


INITIATOR 


INITIATING REASON 


ESTIMATED BLM COST 


LOCKE DECISION 








Administrative 
decision 


BLM 


Non-filing of affidavits by claimant of 
annual assessment work 


$100/claim group 


If appealed 


Claimant 


Adverse BLM decision 


$200/appeal 1 


VALID EXISTING RIGHTS (VER) DETERMINATION 

Mineral Exam BLM Claimant files a plan of operations to 

conduct mining related activities 
within a WSA. 


$13,700/claim group 2 


Contest 


BLM 


BLM determines that claimant does 
not have VER. 


$2220/contest 3 


MINERAL PATENT 








Administrative 
Procedures, 
Mineral exam 
and Patent 
issuance. 


Claimant 


Claimant applies for patent in WSA. 


$17,300* 


Contest 


BLM 


BLM determines that claimant does 
not have VER. 


$2220/contest 5 



1 Locke Decisions (United States v. Locke . 471 U.S. 84 (1985)) are appealed to IBLA. Cost shown reflects 
BLM administrative costs but does not include IBLA costs. 

2 Represents minimum complexity VER (costs can increase substantially if case is complex). Field 
operations within a designated wilderness area could require special transportation needs such as helicopter 
or horses at additional cost. Cost estimate includes: 

Environmental assessment of plan of operations and VER procedures 15 days 

Mineral exam preparation (literature search, equipment prep., etc.) 5 days 

Field mineral exam (2 people, 7 days each) 14 days 

Report preparation (includes illustration and manuscript review) 30 days 

Technical review, corrections and approval 2 days 

3 Estimated average costs including administrative adjudication costs, hearing preparation and testimony 
by mineral examiner (5 days), and closing file. Does not include cost of attorney's representing government 
nor any IBLA costs. 

4 Does not include fees charged claimant, such as application fee, mineral survey, etc. Field operations 
within a designated wilderness area could require special transportation needs such as helicopter or horses 
at additional cost. 

5 Estimated average costs including administrative adjudication costs, hearing preparation and testimony 
by mineral examiner (5 days), and closing file. Does not include cost of attorney's representing government 
nor any IBLA costs. 



50 



APPENDIX IV 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec.1989) 



MINENAME(alt) 


COMPANY 


PRIMARY PRODUCT 


COPRODUCT 



AGGREGATE PRODUCTS PIT 

ANDRE ROAD PIT 

EAST HIGHUNE PIT #1 

ELMS PIT 

FRINK PIT (NILAND ROCK PIT) 

FRINKPIT 

GLAMIS PIT 

HOLTVILLE #1 PIT 

HOLTVILLE #2 PIT 

MASTERS BORROW PIT 

MESQUITE MINE 

OCOTILLOPIT 

OCOTILLO PIT 

PADRE-MADRE MINE 

PICACHO MINE 

PICACHO PEAK PROJECT 
(CHRISTIE GOLD MINE) 

PLASTER CITY QUARRY 

SHELL CANYON PIT (FOSSIL 
CANYON PIT) 

SHOVELER-ANNEX QUARRY 

TIERRA PIT 

WHEELER ROAD PIT 

WONDERSTONE ROCK PIT 

ADAMS PIT 

AMERICAN PERUTE PIT 

ASH MEADOWS PIT 

BRIGGS MINE 

COSO PIT (BATTLE MOUNTAIN 
MINE) 

CRYSTAL SPRINGS TALC MINE 

FIVE BRIDGES PIT (NIKOLAUS 
PIT) 

GERSTLEY MINE 

HAIWEE QUARRY (OCUTE 
QUARRY) 

J.O. CLAIMS 

KEYSTONE MINE 

LONE PINE PIT 

MARGIE #1 THRU #60 

OWENS LAKE MINE 



AGGREGATE PRODUCTS COMPANY 

UDCO, INC. 

ALL AMERICAN AGGREGATES 

ELMS EQUIPMENT RENTAL 

IMPERIAL REDI-MIX 

DESERT GRAVEL COMPANY 

ALL AMERICAN AGGREGATES 

DESERT GRAVEL COMPANY 

DESERT GRAVEL COMPANY 

MASTERS CONSTRUCTION 

GOLD FIELDS OPERATING COMPANY 

MEALEY CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

IMPERIAL REDI-MIX 

AMERICAN GIRL MINING CORP. 

CHEMGOLD, INC. 

CHRISTIE GOLD. LTD. 

UNITED STATES GYPSUM COMPANY 
VAL-ROCK. INC. 

CALMAT COMPANY (CEMENT DIVISION) 

TIERRA TILE 

UDCO. INC. 

IMPERIAL REDI-MIX 

HIATTS SAND AND GRAVEL COMPANY 

AMERICAN PERUTE COMPANY 

EAST-WEST MINERALS, INC. 

PRUETT. DAVID 

CAUFORNIA UGHTWEIGHT PUMICE. INC. 

CARTER. BILLY E. 

NIKOLAUS AND NIKOLAUS. INC. 

U.S. BORAX AND CHEMICAL CORP. 
PACIFIC NATURAL AGGREGATE COMPANY 

INYO MINERALS 

KEYSTONE MINING COMPANY 

LONE PINE SAND AND GRAVEL COMPANY 

CAUFORNIA UGHTWEIGHT PUMICE. INC. 

LAKE MINERALS CORP. 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
STONE (FILL) 
GOLD (LODE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SILVER (LODE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 


SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 


GOLD (LODE) 


SILVER (LODE) 


GOLD (LODE) 


SILVER (LODE) 


GOLD (LODE) 


SILVER (LODE) 


GYPSUM 




SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 




GYPSUM 




SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 




SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 


SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 


SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 


SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 


SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 




PERUTE 




ZEOUTES 




GOLD (LODE) 


SILVER (LODE) 


PUMICE 




TALC 




SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 




BORATES 




PUMICE 




WOLLASTONITE 




GOLD (LODE) 


SILVER (LODE) 


SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 


SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 


PUMICE 




SODIUM COMPOUNDS 





52 



APPENDIX V 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


COMPANY 


PRIMARY PRODUCT 


COPRODUCT 



PINE CREEK MINE 

RED HILL CINDER PIT 

SIDEHILLMINE 

SNOWCAPS MINE 

WHITE EAGLE MINE 

WHITE QUARRY (INYO MARBLE 
QUARRY) 

107 LIMESTONE QUARRY 

107 SHALE QUARRY 

ARVIN PIT 

BARRETT PIT 

BERTRAND SAND PIT 

BIG ROCK PIT 

BOWMAN ROAD PIT 

CACTUS MINE (BLUE EAGLE 
MINE) 

CALCITE QUARRY 

CAUENTE PIT 

CANEBRAKE CREEK PIT (LADD 
PIT) 

CHEVRON PIT 

DERBY ACRES PIT 

DUTCH CLEANSER MINE 
(SESMOTITE MINE) 

EDISON SAND PIT 

FRA2IER MOUNTAIN PIT 

GARCES HIGHWAY QUARRY 
(SOUTHARD PIT) 

GREENHORN CREEK PLACER 

HANSEN DG PIT 

HOBO MINE (HOBO MILL SITE) 

HUNSAKER QUARRY 

JAMES ROAD PIT 

JAMES ROAD PIT 

KERN RIVER PIT 

KERN RIVER PIT 

KRAMER PIT (BORON PIT) 

LOST HILLS MINE 

LOWES SOUTHERN CLAY PIT 

MCKITTRICK QUARRY 



U.S. TUNGSTEN CORP., DIV. STRATCOR 
TWIN MOUNTAIN ROCK COMPANY 
R.T. VANDERBILT COMPANY. INC. 
SUNSHINE MINING COMPANY 
OKUNIEWICZ MINING COMPANY 
INYO MARBLE COMPANY 

NATIONAL CEMENT CO. OF CAUFORNIA. INC. 
NATIONAL CEMENT CO. OF CAUFORNIA. INC. 
GRANITE CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 
BARRETT, L.G. 
BERTRAND. GEORGE JR. 
OILDALE READY MIX 

ASPHALT CONSTRUCTION COMPANY. INC. 
CACTUS GOLD MINES COMPANY 

CALMAT COMPANY (CEMENT DIVISION) 
CAUENTE SAND AND GRAVEL COMPANY 
LADD. LEROY 

CHEVRON USA, INC. 

ARCO OIL AND GAS COMPANY 

MATCON CORP.. INC. 

EDISON SAND COMPANY 
WAINWRIGHT. JAMES 
SOUTHARD. LARRY 

GREENHORN MOUNTAIN MINING ASSOCIATION 

HANSEN, HOMER J. 

FINDLY, LAWRENCE I. 

HUNSAKER. WILUAM 

KERN ROCK COMPANY 

GRANITE CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

ANDERSON. WILUAM A. 

WEBSTER SAND. INC. 

U.S. BORAX AND CHEMICAL CORP. 

HOLLOWAY. H.M.. INC. 

LOWES SOUTHERN CLAY OF CAUFORNIA, INC. 

EXCEL-MINERAL COMPANY. INC. 



TUNGSTEN 

CINDERS (BASE) 

CLAY (BENTONITE) 

GOLD (LODE) 

TALC 

UMESTONE (OTHER USES) 

UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 
SHALE (FOR CEMENT) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
GOLD (LODE) 

UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
PUMICE 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
STONE (BASE) 

GOLD (PLACER) 

STONE (S.B.) 

GOLD (LODE) 

STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 

BORATES 

GYPSUM 

SHALE (SPECIALTY USES) 

SHALE (SPECIALTY USES) 



MOLYBDENUM 

DECORATIVE ROCK (CINDERS) 

SILVER (LODE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SILVER (LODE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

CLAY (BENTONITE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

STONE (S.B.) 



STONE (S.B.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SHALE (FOR CEMENT) 
DIATOMITE 



54 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec.1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


SECTION. TOWNSHIP. RANGE 


COUNTY 


TYPE OF MINE 


MINE STATUS 



AGGREGATE PRODUCTS PIT 

ANDRE ROAD PIT 

EAST HIGHUNE PIT #1 

ELMS PIT 

FRINK PIT (NILAND ROCK PIT) 

FRINKPIT 

GLAMIS PIT 

HOLTVILLE#1 PIT 

HOLTVILLE #2 PIT 

MASTERS BORROW PIT 

MESQUITE MINE 

OCOT1LLO PIT 

OCOTILLO PIT 

PADRE-MADRE MINE 

PICACHO MINE 

PICACHO PEAK PROJECT 
(CHRISTIE GOLD MINE) 

PLASTER CITY QUARRY 

SHELL CANYON PIT (FOSSIL 
CANYON PIT) 

SHOVELER-ANNEX QUARRY 

TIERRAPIT 

WHEELER ROAD PIT 

WONDERSTONE ROCK PIT 

ADAMS PIT 

AMERICAN PERUTE PIT 

ASH MEADOWS PIT 

BRIGGS MINE 

COSO PIT (BATTLE MOUNTAIN 
MINE) 

CRYSTAL SPRINGS TALC MINE 

FIVE BRIDGES PIT (NIKOLAUS 
PIT) 

GERSTLEY MINE 

HAIWEE QUARRY (OCUTE 
QUARRY) 

J.O. CLAIMS 

KEYSTONE MINE 

LONE PINE PIT 

MARGIE #1 THRU #60 

OWENS LAKE MINE 



SW4.SEC21.S2.SW4.SEC21.T9S.R9E.SBB 

SEC28.T13S.R12E.SBB 

NE4.SEC16.T13S.R16E.SBB 

N2.SEC26.T13S.R18E.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC27.T9S.R13E.SBB 

NE4.SW4.SEC20.T9S.R13E.SBB 

UNDETERMINED 

E2.SEC13.T16S.R16E.SBB 

NW4.SEC1.T16S.R16E.SBB 

NW4.SEC7.T15S.R12E.SBB 

T13S.R19E.SBB 

SEC15.T16S.R9E.SBB 

SEC15.T16S.R9E.SBB 

SEC19.T15S.R21E.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC2.3.4.9.10.11.T14S.R22E.SBB 

SEC3.T14S.R22E.SBB 

SEC19.20.28.29.32.33.T13S.R9E.SBB 
NW4.SEC14.T16S.R9E.SBB 

SEC19.30.T13S.R9E.SBB 

NE4.SEC24.T16S.R16E.SBB 

SEC10.n5S.R12E.SBB 

E2.NW4.SEC21.T9S.R9E.SBB 

SEC32.33.T6S.R33E.MDB 

SEC24.25.19.30.T10S.R33E.MDB 

SEC9.10.15.T25N.R6E.SBB 

NW4.SEC13.T23S.R44E.MDB (PROJ) 

NE4.SEC13.T21S.R37E.MDB 

SW4.SEC25.T20N.R9E.SBB 
N2.N2.SEC19.T6S.R33E.MDB 

SEC9.16.T22N.R7E.SBB 
S2.NE4.SW4.SEC1.T20S.R37E.MDB 

SE4.SEC20.NE4.SEC29.T15S.R41E.MDB 

SEC9.16.T24S.R45E.MDB 

NE4.SW4.SEC25.T15S.R36E.MDB 

SE4.NE4&NW4.SE4.SEC13.T21S.R37E.MDB 

SEC9.10.15.16.T18S.R37E.MDB 



IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


IMPERIAL 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


IMPERIAL 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


INYO 


UNDERGROUND 


INTERMITTENT 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


INYO 


PROSPECT 


INTERMITTENT 


INYO 


UNDERGROUND 


PRODUCING 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 



53 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec.1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


COMPANY 


PRIMARY PRODUCT 


COPRODUCT 



ATKINSON PIT 
AZUSA PIT 
AZUSA PIT 
BIG HORN MINE 
BIG ROCK CREEK PIT 
BORGES R(XK 
BOULEVARD PIT 
CALMAT PIT 
CASTAIC QUARRY 
DEL SUR RIDGE QUARRY 

DEVILS GATE RESERVIOR PIT 

DURBIN PIT 

EMPIRE LANDING QUARRY 

FISH CANYON QUARRY 

IRWINDALE PIT 

LANG STATION PIT 

LANG STATION PIT (SANTA 
CLARA RIVER PIT) 

UTTLEROCK PIT 

UTTLEROCK WASH PIT 

MAUBU LAKE 

PALMDALE PIT 

PASADENA AGGREGATES PIT 

PEBBLY BEACH QUARRY 

RELIANCE PIT (AZUSA) 

RELIANCE PIT (IRWINDALE) 

RODEFFER PIT (RODEFFER 
SAND & GRAVEL QUARRY) 

SHELDON PIT AT SUN VALLEY 

SOLEDAD CANYON PIT 

SOLEDAD PIT 

SUNBURST PIT (SIERRA PIT) 

EL TORO PIT 
GYPSUM CANYON PIT 
IRVINE LAKE PIT 
LUCAS CANYON QUARRY 

MISSION VIEJO SAND PLANT 
PLATZ QUARRY (MARION) 



ATKINSON BRICK COMPANY 

OWL ROCK PRODUCTS COMPANY 

TRANSIT MIXED CONCRETE COMPANY 

SPEERSTRA. SAM 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

BORGES ROCK PRODUCTS. INC 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

CASTAIC BRICK MANUFACTURING COMPANY 

BOUQUET CANYON STONE COMPANY 

D & S EARTH MOVERS 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

CONNOLLY-PACIFIC COMPANY 

AZUSA ROCK. INC. 

LIVINGSTON-GRAHAM, INC. 

LANG STATION SAND AND GRAVEL 

CURTIS SAND AND GRAVEL 

ANTELOPE VALLEY AGGREGATE. INC. 

STATE SAND AND GRAVEL 

MAUBU LAKE MOUNTAIN CLUB. LTD. 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

R.T.D. ROCK AND SAND 

CONNOLLY-PACIFIC COMPANY 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

THREE D SERVICES 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 
CURTIS SAND AND GRAVEL 
P.W. GILUBRAND COMPANY 
SUNBURST DECORATIVE ROCK. INC. 

EL TORO MATERIALS COMPANY 
PACIFIC CLAY BUILDING PRODUCTS 
BLUE DIAMOND MATERIALS 
ORTEGA ROCK QUARRY 

CALIFORNIA SIUCA PRODUCTS COMPANY 
RIVERSIDE CEMENT COMPANY 



CLAY (COMMON) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

GEM MINERALS 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

CLAY (COMMON) 

DIMENSION STONE 
(NON-SPECIFIED) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

STONE (RIP RAP) 

STONE (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (FILL) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
STONE (RIP RAP) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

DECORATIVE ROCK 
(NON-SPECIFIED) 

STONE (S.B.) 

CLAY (COMMON) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

STONE (FILL). DECOMPOSED 
GRANITE 

SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 

CLAY (KAOUN) 



CLAY (FIRE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

STONE (BASE) 

STONE (RIP RAP) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SERICITE 

STONE (S.B.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
STONE (RIP RAP) 

STONE (FILL) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

CLAY (KAOUN) 



58 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


SECTION. TOWNSHIP, RANGE 


COUNTY 


TYPE OF MINE 


MINE STATUS 



PINE CREEK MINE 

RED HILL CINDER PIT 

SIDEHILLMINE 

SNOWCAPS MINE 

WHITE EAGLE MINE 

WHITE QUARRY (INYO MARBLE 
QUARRY) 

107 UMESTONE QUARRY 

107 SHALE QUARRY 

ARVIN PIT 

BARRETT PIT 

BERTRAND SAND PIT 

BIG ROCK PIT 

BOWMAN ROAD PIT 

CACTUS MINE (BLUE EAGLE 
MINE) 

CALCITE QUARRY 

CAUENTE PIT 

CANEBRAKE CREEK PIT (LADD 
PIT) 

CHEVRON PIT 

DERBY ACRES PIT 

DUTCH CLEANSER MINE 
(SESMOTITE MINE) 

EDISON SAND PIT 

FRA2IER MOUNTAIN PIT 

GARCES HIGHWAY QUARRY 
(SOUTHARD PIT) 

GREENHORN CREEK PLACER 

HANSEN DG PIT 

HOBO MINE (HOBO MILL SITE) 

HUNSAKER QUARRY 

JAMES ROAD PIT 

JAMES ROAD PIT 

KERN RIVER PIT 

KERN RIVER PIT 

KRAMER PIT (BORON PIT) 

LOST HILLS MINE 

LOWES SOUTHERN CLAY PIT 

MCKITTRICK QUARRY 



SEC5.T7S.R30E.MDB 

SEC31.T22S.R38E.MDB 

SEC18.19.T26N.R5E.SBB 

SEC7.T13S.R36E.MDB 

SE4.SEC3.T13S.R37E.MDB (PROJ) 

SE4.SEC4.T16S.R37E.MDB 

SEC22.26.27.T9N.R18W.SBB 

SEC22.26.27.T9N.R18W.SBB 

SEC28.T31S.R30E.MDB 

W2.SEC34.T32S.R33E.MDB 

W2, NW4.SEC27.T26S. R39E. MDB 

W2.NE4&E2.NW4.SEC18.SBB 

S2.SW4.SEC2.T27S.R39E.MDB 

W2.SEC17.T10N.R13W.SBB 

S2.SEC10.SEC14.T10N.R15W.SBB 

W2.SEC19.T30S.R30E.MDB 

SW4.SE4.SEC16.T25S.R36E.MDB 

SEC36.T31S.R28E.MDB 
SEC11.T31S.R22E.MDB 
SEC5.6.7.8.T29S.R38E.MDB 

SW4.NW4.SEC17.T30S.R30E.MDB 
SW4.SW4.SEC33.T9N.R19W.SBB 
NE4.SEC24.T25S, R29E. MDB 

SEC1.11.12.13.T27S.R31E.MDB 

S2.SEC21.T32S.R35E.MDB 

SEC15,16.21.22.T27S,R32E.MDB 

SE4.NE4.SEC24.T25S.R28E.MDB 

NE4.SEC28.T26S.R27E.MDB 

NE4.SEC28.T28S.R27E.MDB 

SEC32.T29S.R27E.MDB 

SW4.SEC3.T29S.R28E.MDB 

SEC13-15.22-14.T11N.R8W.SBB 

SEC11.14.23-25.T26S.R20E.MDB 

SEC9.T11N.R24W.SBB 

SEC5.T30S.R21E.MDB 



INYO 


UNDERGROUND 


PRODUCING 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


INYO 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


INYO 


UNDERGROUND 


PRODUCING 


INYO 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


KERN 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


DREDGE 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


IN-STREAM 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


KERN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


KERN 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 



55 



ACTIVE MiNES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


COMPANY 


PRIMARY PRODUCT 


COPRODUCT 



MCKITTRICK QUARRY (SIMRIC 
QUARRY) 

MICROWAVE QUARRY 

MILLER PIT (MOJAVE PIT) 

MOJAVE PIT 

MONARCH QUARRIES 

MONOUTH UMESTONE 
QUARRY (JAMESON QUARRY) 

MORTON PIT 

PLACER CLAIM OPEN PIT 

PV CLAY MINE (WHITE ROCK 
QUARRY) 

RANDSBURQ FLAGSONE 
QUARRY 

REWARD ROAD QUARRY 
(COOPER QUARRY) 

ROBBERS ROOST MINE 

SAN EMIGDIO PIT 

SAND CANYON PIT 

SAND RIDGE PRESERVE 

SANTA FE PIT 

SECTION 13-24 QUARRY 

SHELL SHALE QUARRY 

SHUMAKER DG PIT (BUESEE 
HILLS PIT) 

SILVER QUEEN MINE 
(MCBRAYER MINE) 

STANDARD HILL MINE 
(BROWERS HILL MINE) 

TAFT PIT 

TAFT QUARRY 

TEHACHAPI PIT 

TEHACHAPI PIT 

TEHACHAPI PIT 

TEJON RANCH PIT 

TWISSELMAN SHALE PIT 

WHEELER RIDGE PIT 

YELLOW ASTER MINE 

ANDREW MINE 

ANTELOPE VALLEY PIT 

ARROW ROCK PIT 



COOPER. STANLEY E 

NATIONAL CEMENT CO. OF CALIFORNIA. INC. 
RANDTRAK COMPANY 
ASPHALT CONSTRUCTION COMPANY. INC. 
MONARCH QUARRIES 

CALAVERAS CEMENT COMPANY 

BOB MORTON CONSTRUCTION. INC. 
BLAKE CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

CONSERVATION FUND 

PRUETT. ANN 

COOPER, STANLEY E. 

ORO. LIMITED 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

CAL-CI-CO ROCK COMPANY 

NATURE CONSERVENCY 

SANTA FE ENERGY CORP. 

CALMAT COMPANY (CEMENT DIVISION) 

SHELL WESTERN E&P. INC. 

SHUMAKER, JAMES H. 

NATIONAL CEMENT CO. OF CALIFORNIA. INC. 

BILUTON MINERALS U.S.A.. INC. 

TAFT READY MIX 
EXCEL-MINERAL COMPANY, INC. 
CLODFELTER CONSTRUCTION. INC. 
SIERRA PIEDRA COMPANY 
BARCOTT. P.G. 
TEJON RANCH COMPANY 
TWISSLEMAN. CARL F.. II 
KERN ROCK COMPANY 
RAND MINING COMPANY 
CURTIS TUNGSTEN 
HI-GRADE MATERIALS. INC. 
OWL ROCK PRODUCTS COMPANY 



SHALE (AGGREGATE) 

UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

DECORATIVE ROCK 
(NON-SPECIFIED) 

UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

DECORATIVE ROCK 
(NON-SPECIFIED) 

CLAY (FIRE) 

DIMENSION STONE (SCHIST) 

SHALE (AGGREGATE) 

GOLD (PLACER) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (FILL) 
UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 
STONE (BASE) 
STONE (S.B.) 

SIUCA 

GOLD (LODE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SHALE (SPECIALTY USES) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
STONE (S.B.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SHALE (UGHT AGGREGATE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
GOLD (LODE) 
TUNGSTEN 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



CLAY (KAOUN) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SHALE (FOR CEMENT) 
SHALE (UGHT AGGREGATE) 

SILVER (LODE) 
SILVER (LODE) 

DIATOMITE 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SILVER (LODE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



56 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


SECTION, TOWNSHIP. RANGE 


COUNTY 


TYPE OF MINE 


MINE STATUS 



ATKINSON PIT 
A2USA PIT 
A2USA PIT 
BIG HORN MINE 
BIG ROCK CREEK PIT 
BORGES ROCK 
BOULEVARD PIT 
CALM AT PIT 
CASTAIC QUARRY 
DEL SUR RIDGE QUARRY 



NW4.SEC16.T3S.R13W.SBB 

S2.SEC22.T1N.R10W.SBB 

N2.SEC3.T1N.R10W.SBB 

SE4.SE4.31.T2N.R7W.SBB 

SEC7,8.17.18.19,R9W.T5N.SBB 

SEC7.T2N.R15W.SBB 

SEC24.T2N.R15W.SBB 

W2.SEC20,T2N,R14W.SBB 

N2.NW4.SEC24.T5N.R17W.SBB 

E2.SEC9.T5N.R15W.SBB 



LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 



OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
UNDERGROUND 
IN-STREAM 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
QUARRY 



INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 



DEVILS GATE RESERVIOR PIT 

DURBIN PIT 

EMPIRE LANDING QUARRY 

FISH CANYON QUARRY 

IRWINDALE PIT 

LANG STATION PIT 

LANG STATION PIT (SANTA 
CLARA RIVER PIT) 

UTTLEROCK PIT 

UTTLEROCK WASH PIT 

MAUBU LAKE 

PALMDALE PIT 

PASADENA AGGREGATES PIT 

PEBBLY BEACH QUARRY 

REUANCE PIT (A2USA) 

REUANCE PIT (IRWINDALE) 

RODEFFER PIT (RODEFFER 
SAND & GRAVEL QUARRY) 

SHELDON PIT AT SUN VALLEY 

SOLEDAD CANYON PIT 

SOLEDAD PIT 

SUNBURST PIT (SIERRA PIT) 

EL TORO PIT 
GYPSUM CANYON PIT 
IRVINE LAKE PIT 
LUCAS CANYON QUARRY 

MISSION VIEJO SAND PLANT 
PLATZ QUARRY (MARION) 



SEC7.T1N.R12W.SBBM 

N2.SEC13.T1S.R11W.SBB 

UNDETERMINED 

NE4.SEC21.NW4.SEC22.T1N.R10W.SBB 

SE4.SEC-|,T1S.R11W,SBB 

E2.SEC18.T4N.R14W.SBB 

SEC18.T4N.R14W.SBB 

SEC2.T5N.R11W.SBB 

SEC1.T5N.R11W.SBB 

SEC3.R18W.T1S.SBB 

S2.SEC3.T5N.R11W.SBB 

SE4,SE4.SEC6.T1N,R-|2W,S8B 

UNDETERMINED 

S2.SEC28.SEC34.T1N.R10W.SBB 

S2.SEC28.T1N,R10W,SBB 

SE4.SE4.SEC11.T1S.R11W.SBB 

N2,SEC19,SW4.SEC18.T2N,R14W,SBB 
SE4.NE4.SEC9.T4N.R14W.SBB 
NE4.SEC17.T4N.R14W.SBB 
SE4.SEC2T1S.R11W.SBB 

SEC7.T6S.R7W.SBB 
E2.SW4.SE4.SEC10.T4S.R8W.SBB 
SEC32.T4S.R7W.SBB 
SEC9,T7S.R6W,SBB 

S34.35.T7S.R7W.SBB 
NW4.SEC12.R7W.T6S.SBB 



LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 

LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 

LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 
LOS ANGELES 

ORANGE 
ORANGE 
ORANGE 
ORANGE 

ORANGE 
ORANGE 



OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

QUARRY 

QUARRY 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

DREDGE 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

QUARRY 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
QUARRY/LANDFILL 

QUARRY 
OPEN PIT 
IN-STREAM 
QUARRY 

QUARRY 
QUARRY 



PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
• PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

FRODUCING 
PRODUCING 



59 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


COMPANY 


PRIMARY PRODUCT 


COPRODUCT 



RANCHO MISSION VIEJO 
QUARRY 

SAN JUAN CREEK PIT 

STAR PIT (GYPSUM CANYON 
PIT) 

TRABUCO CREEK PIT 

3M CORONA QUARRY 

6 MINE (HERRINGTON MINE) 

A-1 THOUSAND PALMJi PIT 

AGUANGA PIT (SHAMROCK PIT. 
TEMECULA PIT) 

AIRPORT BLVD. PIT 

ALBERHILLCLAY MINE: 

ALBERHILLDEEGEEPIT 

AVALON STREET PIT 

BIDDLE PITS 

CABAZON PIT 

CAJAUCO QUARRY 

CHUCKAWALLA MINE 

CORONA CLAY PIT 

CORONA MINE 

CORONA PACIFIC QUARRY 
(CORONA QUARRY) 

CORONA PIT (GLEN 
IVY-TEMESCAL OPERATION) 

CORONA QUARRY 

CRESTMORE QUARRY 

DAWSON CANYON PIT 

DILLON ROAD PIT (R BAR C 
SAND AND GRAVEL PIT) 

DILLON ROAD PIT 

DILLON ROAD PIT 

DOMINGUEZ LEASE PIT 
(D0MINGUE2 MINE) 

EAGLE CANYON QUARRY 
(RANCHO EL SOBPANTE 
QUARRY) 

EL CERRITO-GLEN IVY PIT 

FIGUEROA QUARFIY 



GARNET ROCK PIT (PALM 
SPRINGS PIT) 



RIVERSIDE CEMENT COMPANY 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 
OWL ROCK PRODUCTS COMPANY 

MISSION VIEJO MATERIALS 

MINNESOTA MINING & MANUFACTURING CO. 

UNITED STATES TILE COMPANY 

A-1 AGGREGATES, INC. 

C.L PHARRIS SAND AND GRAVEL. INC. 

VALLEY GRAVEL INC. 

PACIFIC CLAY PRODUCTS, INC. 

ALBERHILL DEE GEE COMPANY 

E.L YEAGER CONSTRUCTION COMPANY, INC. 

PACIFIC CLAY PRODUCTS, INC. 

BEAUMONT CONCRETE COMPANY 

FONTANA PAVING, INC. 

SOUTHERN DESERT GOLD CORP. 

RIVERSIDE CEMENT COMPANY 

CORONA INDUSTRIAL SAND CO. 

PACIFIC ROCK AND GRAVEL CO. 

CHANDLER'S SAND AND GRAVEL 

ALL AMERICAN ASPHALT COMPANY 
RIVERSIDE CEMENT COMPANY 
C.L PHARRIS SAND AND GRAVEL INC. 
R BAR C SAND AND GRAVEL INC. 

DIERKING, DON 

JAMES E. SIMON COMPANY 

UNITED STATES TILE COMPANY 

SANTA ANA RIVER ROCK COMPANY 

MOBILE SAND COMPANY 

FIGUEROA BROTHERS MINING & DECOR. STONE 

MASSEY SAND AND ROCK COMPANY 



GLEN IVY PIT (MAITRI ROAD FOSTER SAND AND GRAVEL COMPANY 

PIT) 



CLAY (OTHER USES) 

STONE (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

DECORATIVE ROCK (ROOFING 
GRANULES) 

CLAY (KAOLIN) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

CLAY (FIRE) 

DECOMPOSED GRANITE 

STONE (S.B.) 

CLAY (KAOLIN) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

STONE (BASE) 

GOLD (LODE) 

CLAY (COMMON) 

SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 

STONE (RIP RAP) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

STONE (P.C.C.) 

STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

STONE (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

CLAY (COMMON) 

STONE (RIP RAP) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

DECORATIVE ROCK 
(NON-SPECIFIED) 

STONE (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 



STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



CLAY (OTHER USES) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (FILL) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
CLAY (KAOUN) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SILVER (LOOE) 

STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

STONE (BASE) 
STONE (RIP RAP) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
STONE (BASE) 

SHALE (SPECIALTY USES) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



60 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 



SECTION, TOWNSHIP. RANGE 



COUNTY 



TYPE OF MINE 



MINE STATUS 



RANCHO MISSION V1EJO 
QUARRY 

SAN JUAN CREEK PIT 

STAR PIT (GYPSUM CANYON 
PIT) 

TRABUCO CREEK PIT 

3M CORONA QUARRY 

6 MINE (HERRINGTON MINE) 

A-1 THOUSAND PALMS PIT 

AGUANGA PIT (SHAMROCK 
PIT. TEMECULA PIT) 

AIRPORT BLVD. PIT 

ALBERHILL CLAY MINE 

ALBERHILLDEEGEEPIT 

AVALON STREET PIT 

BIDDLE PITS 

CABAZON PIT 

CAJAUCO QUARRY 

CHUCKAWALLA MINE 

CORONA CLAY PIT 

CORONA MINE - 

CORONA PACIFIC QUARRY 
(CORONA QUARRY) 

CORONA PIT (GLEN 

I VY-TEMESCAL OPERATION) 

CORONA QUARRY 

CRESTMORE QUARRY 

DAWSON CANYON PIT 

DILLON ROAD PIT (R BAR C 
SAND AND GRAVEL PIT) 

DILLON ROAD PIT 

DILLON ROAD PIT 

DOMINGUEZ LEASE PIT 
(DOMINGUEZ MINE) 

EAGLE CANYON QUARRY 
(RANCHO EL SOBRANTE 
QUARRY) 

EL CERRITO-GLEN IVY PIT 

FIGUEROA QUARRY 



GARNET ROCK PIT (PALM 

SPRINGS PIT) 

GLEN IVY PIT (MAITRI ROAD 
PIT) 



SEC6.7.18.R6W.T8S.SBB 

SEC25.35.T7S.R7W.SBB 
SEC28.30.T3S.R8W.SBB 

S2.SEC24.N2.SEC25.T7S.R8W.SBB 
UNDETERMINED 

E2.SE4.SEC26.T4S. R6W.SBB 

E2.SEC31.T3S.R6E.SBB 

SEC13.SEC24.TBS.R1W.SBB 

S2.SEC1B.N2.SEC19.T6S.R9E.SBB 

SEC21.22.23.T5S.R5W.SBB 

UNDETERMINED 

NW4.SEC10.T2S.R5W.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC22.23.T5S.R5W.SB 

SW2.SEC7.NE4.SEC18.T3S.R2E.SBB 

NE4.SEC5.T4S.R6W.SBB 

SEC16.1 7.20.21 .T8S.R17E.SBB 

N2.SW4.SEC26.T4S.R6W.SBB 

NW4.NW4.SEC16.T4S.R6W.SBB 

NW4,NE4&NE4,NW4.SEC4.T4S,R6W.SBB 

SW4.SEC2.SE4.SEC3.T5S.R6W.SBB 

S2.NW4.SEC33.T3S.R6W.SBB (PROJ) 
SEC2.3.T2S.R5W.SBB 
SEC27.34.35.T4S.R6W.SEC1.T5S.R6W.SB 
N2.SW4.SW4.SEC29.T4S.R8E.SBB 

W2.SEC19.T4S.R8E.SBB 
SE4.SEC30.T4S.R8E.SBB 
SEC31.T3S.R7W.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC3.10.T4S.R6W.SBB (PROJ) 

SW4.SEC22.NW4.SEC27.T4S.R6W.SBB 
NW2.SEC36.T3S.R20E.SBB 

SW4.SEC23.T3S.R4E.SBB 

SE4.SEC1 1 .T5S.R6W.SBB 



ORANGE 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


ORANGE 


IN-STREAM 


PRODUCING 


ORANGE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


ORANGE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


• PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 



61 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec.1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


COMPANY 


PRIMARY PRODUCT 


COPRODUCT 



HARLOW QUARRY 

INDIO ROCK PIT 

INTERMAC PIT 

JACK RABBIT CANYON CUARRY 

JUARO CANYON QUARRY 

LEVY QUARRY 

USTON CLAY PIT 

MAITRI ROAD PIT (COLDWATER 
CANYON PIT) 

MAITRI ROAD PIT (COLDWATER 
AGGREGATES PIT) 

MATICH PIT 

MAYHEW CANYON PIT 

MISSION CLAY PRODUCTS PIT 

MOTTE PIT (QUAIL LAKE 
PROPERTIES PIT) 

MOUNTAIN AVENUE PIT #1 

MOUNTAIN AVENUE PIT #2 

PACIFIC CLAY BORROW PIT 

PACIFIC CLAY PITS 

PALM DESERT ROCK AND SAND 
PIT (FARGO CANYON PP") 

PARKWEST INDUSTRIAL 
CENTER PIT 

PRADO PIT 

QUANDT BORROW PIT 

RIO DEL SOL PIT (SING PIT) 

ROGERS PIT 

RUBIDOUX QUARRY (ORMOND 
QUARRY) 

SAN JACINTO PIT (SOBOBA 
PLANT) 

SEDCO PIT 

SHEPWELLS PIT #1 

SHEPWELLS PIT #2 

SLOAN PIT 

SMITH SAND PIT 

STRINGFELLOW QUAF;RY 

SUPER CREEK CLAIMS QUARRY 
(PAINTED HILL QUARRY) 

TEMECULA SAND COMPANY 
PIT (KACOR LEASE PIT) 



PAUL HUBBS CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

MASSEY SAND AND ROCK COMPANY 

FONTANA PAVING. INC. 

MORENO VALLEY SAND AND GRAVEL COMPANY 

D.J.B. PROPERTIES 

LEVY QUARRIES 

CALMAT COMPANY (CEMENT DIVISION) 

J.F. AND T. SAND COMPANY 

R.J. NOBLE COMPANY 

MATICH CORP. 

C.L PHARRIS SAND AND GRAVEL INC. 
MISSION CLAY PRODUCTS CORP. 
MOTTE. FRANKUN 

ELSINORE READY MIX COMPANY. INC. 
ELSINORE READY MIX COMPANY. INC. 
PACIFIC CLAY PRODUCTS. INC. 
PACIFIC CLAY PRODUCTS. INC. 
PALM DESERT ROCK AND SAND. INC. 

NORTH COUNTY SAND AND GRAVEL 

OWL ROCK PRODUCTS COMPANY 

QUANDT. CARL H. 

AMRA. INC. 

MEANS CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

PAUL HUBBS CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

CHURCH ENGINEERING. INC. 

LAKE ELSINORE MATERIALS 

SHEPWELLS. INC. 

SHEPWELLS. INC. 

PACIFIC CLAY PRODUCTS. INC. 

RIVERSIDE CEMENT COMPANY 

PAUL HUBBS CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

WHITEWATER ROCK AND SUPPLY COMPANY 

TEMECULA SAND COMPANY 



STONE (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
STONE (RIP RAP) 
STONE (BASE) 
CLAY (OTHER USES) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
CLAY (COMMON) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
CLAY (KAOUN) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

DECOMPOSED GRANITE (FILL) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

STONE (S.B.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

CLAY (FIRE) 

SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 

STONE (BASE) 

DECORATIVE ROCK 
(NON-SPECIFIED) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 



CLAY 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 

STONE (S.B.) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
CLAY (FIRE) 



DIMENSION STONE 
(NON-SPECIFIED) 



62 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 



SECTION. TOWNSHIP. RANGE 



COUNTY 



TYPE OF MINE 



MINE STATUS 



HARLOW QUARRY 
INDIO ROCK PIT 
INTERMAC PIT 



SW4.SEC15.T4S.R6W.SBB 

NE4.SEC33.NW4.34.T4S.R7E.SBB 

UNDETERMINED 



JACK RABBIT CANYON QUARRY SW4.SEC14.NW4.SEC23.T3S.R2W.SBB 



RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 



QUARRY/OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 



PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 



JUARO CANYON QUARRY 

LEVY QUARRY 

USTON CLAY PIT 

MAITRI ROAD PIT (COLDWATER 
CANYON PIT) 

MAITRI ROAD PIT (COLDWATER 
AGGREGATES PIT) 

MATICH PIT 

MAYHEW CANYON PIT 

MISSION CLAY PRODUCTS PIT 

MOTTE PIT (QUAIL LAKE 
PROPERTIES PIT) 

MOUNTAIN AVENUE PIT #1 

MOUNTAIN AVENUE PIT #2 

PACIFIC CLAY BORROW RT 

PACIFIC CLAY PITS 

PALM DESERT ROCK AND 
SAND PIT (FARGO CANYON 
PIT) 

PARKWEST INDUSTRIAL 
CENTER PIT 

PRADO PIT 

QUANDT BORROW PIT 

RIO DEL SOL PIT (SING PIT) 

ROGERS PIT 

RUBIDOUX QUARRY (ORMOND 
QUARRY) 

SAN JACINTO PIT (SOBOBA 
PLANT) 

SEDCO PIT 

SHEPWELLS PIT #1 

SHEPWELLS PIT #2 

SLOAN PIT 

SMITH SAND PIT 

STRINGFELLOW QUARRY 

SUPER CREEK CLAIMS QUARRY 
(PAINTED HILL QUARRY) 

TEMECULA SAND COMPANY 
PIT (KACOR LEASE PIT) 



SW4.SW4.SEC20.T4S.R1E.SBB 
SEC26.27.T4S.R22E.SBB 
E2.NW4.SEC26.T4S.R6W.SBB 
NW4.SEC11.T5S.R6W.SBB 

NE4.SEC10.T5S.R6W.SBB 

E2.SEC3.T3S.R1E.SBB 
SEC2.11.T5S.R6W.SBB 
SEC35.T4S.R6W.SBB 
SEC22.27.T3S.R2W.SBB 

SEC33.34.T5S.R5W.SBB 

NW4.SEC27.NE4.SEC28.T5S.R5W.SBB 

W2.SEC21.T5S.R5W.SBB 

SEC21.T5S.R5W.SB8 

NE4.SE4.SEC9.T5S.R8E.SBB 

SEC30.T8S.R2W.SBB 

SE4.SEC19.T3S.R7W.SBB 
SEC14.15.22.23.T4S,R1W.SBB 
E2.E2.SE4.SEC1.T4S.R5E.SBB 
SE4.SE4.SEC5.T5S.R2W.SBB 
SEC8.9.T2S.R5W.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC14.15.22.23.T4S.R1W.SBB 

SE4.SEC15.T6S.R4W.SBB 

NW4.SE4.SEC25.T5S.R22E.SBB 

NW4.SE4.SEC25.T5S.R22E.SBB 

NW4.SEC22.T5S.R5W.SBB 

SW4.SW4.SEC17.T4S.R6W.SBB 

NW4.SE4.SEC1.T2S.R6W.SBB 

SEC36.T2S.R3E.SBB 

UNDETERMINED 



RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 

RIVERSIDE 

RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 

RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 

RIVERSIDE 

RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 

RIVERSIDE 

RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 
RIVERSIDE 

RIVERSIDE 



QUARRY 
QUARRY 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

IN-STREAM 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
QUARRY 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
QUARRY 
QUARRY 



GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 



PRODUCING 
INTERMITTENT 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

F'RODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

, PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
INTERMITTENT 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 



63 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CAUFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(att) 


COMPANY 


PRIMARY PRODUCT 


COPROOUCT 



TEMESCAL CANYON PIT 
(CORONA INDUSTRIAL SAND 
PIT) 

THOUSAND PALMS PIT 

WHITEWATER ROCK PIT 

WILUAMS PIT 

ALV1C QUARRY (A LUMIC 
QUARRY) 



COROSILCORP. 

E.L YEAGER CONSTRUCTION COMPANY. INC. 
MASSEY SAND AND ROCK COMPANY 
SHEPWELLS. INC. 
SOUTHWESTERN PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY 



SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) CLAY (COMMON) 



ARGUS PIT (TREP BORROW PIT) KERR-MCGEE CHEMICAL CORP. 



BARSTOW PIT 



OWL ROCK PRODUCTS COMPANY 



BAXTER MINE (CAVE CANYON DESHER MINING COMPANY 

MINE) 



BECK MINE 



BEIGE ROCK QUARRY 



BEIGE ROCK QUARRY 



BENTONITE PIT 



BIRDSEYE GRANITE QUARRY 
(CHALCOAL BLACK QUARRY) 

BLACK GRANITE QUAHRY 
(TETONITA QUARRY) 

BLACK MOUNTAIN QLARRY 



BLUE BOY QUARRY (BLUE BOY 
NO.1 AND NO.5) 

BOROSOLVAY PIT 



BRISTOL DRY LAKE PIT 



BRISTOL DRY LAKE PIT 



BRISTOL DRY LAKE PIT 



BROWN-GOLD-LILAC QUARRY 
GROUP 

BRUNER PACIFIC QUARRY 
(TURTLEBACK CLAIMS) 

BRYMAN ROAD PIT 



CADIZ DRY LAKE PIT 



CAUCHE QUARRY 



CALSPAR BICENTENNIAL 
GROUP 



STANDARD SLAG COMPANY 
BRUBAKER-MANN. INC. 
CAUCO ROCK MILLING. INC. 
BRUBAKER-MANN. INC. 
BRUBAKER-MANN. INC. 
CAUCO ROCK MILLING. INC. 



SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SHALE (FOR CEMENT) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

IRON ORE (FOR CEMENT) 

IRON ORE 

DECORATIVE ROCK (VOLCANIC 
ROCK) 

DECORATIVE ROCK (VOLCANIC 
ROCK) 

CLAY (BENTONITE) 
DECORATIVE ROCK (GRANITE) 
OECORATIVE ROCK (GRANITE) 



SOUTHWESTERN PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY • UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 
PART1N UMESTONE PRODUCTS. INC. UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 

KERR-MCGEE CHEMICAL CORP. SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

CALCIUM COMPOUNDS 



LESUE SALT COMPANY 

NATIONAL CHLORIDE COMPANY OF AMERICA 

C.V. ORGANIC FERTIUZER 

BRUBAKER-MANN. INC. 

BRUNER PACIFIC MARBLE AND GRANITE. INC. 

DAILY TRANSIT MIX CORP. 

LEE CHEMICAL COMPANY 



CALCIUM COMPOUNDS 

GYPSUM 

DECORATIVE ROCK (VOLCANIC 
ROCK) 

DIMENSION STONE (GRANITE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
CALCIUM COMPOUNDS 



SOUTHWESTERN PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 
ELLERMAN. OTTO FELDSPAR 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



STONE (BASE) 
STONE (BASE) 

STONE (BASE) 
STONE (BASE) 

UMESTONE (FOR UME) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 
SODIUM COMPOUNDS 
SALT 

STONE (BASE) 



DECORATIVE ROCK (NON 
SPECIFIED) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



64 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


SECTION. TOWNSHIP, RANGE 


COUNTY 


TYPE OF MINE 


MINE STATUS 



TEMESCAL CANYON PIT 
(CORONA INDUSTRIAL SAND 
PIT) 

THOUSAND PALMS PIT 

WHITEWATER ROCK PIT 

WILLIAMS PIT 

ALvlC QUARRY (ALUMIC 
QUARRY) 

ARGUS PIT (TREP BORROW 
PIT) 

BARSTOW PIT 



UNDETERMINED 

NW4.SEC5.T4S.R6E.SBB 
NE4.SEC11.T3S.R3E.SBB 
N2.SE4.SEC32.T5S.R23E.SBB 
SEC4.T6N.R2W.SBB 

SEC18.T25S.R43E.MDB 

SEC10J9N.R1W.SBB 



BAXTER MINE (CAVE CANYON SEC12.T11N.R6E.SBB 

MINE) 



BECK MINE 



BEIGE ROCK QUARRY 



BEIGE ROCK QUARRY 



BENTONITE PIT 



SEC31.T20N.R10E.SBB 



S2.SE4.NW4.SEC30.T10N.R1E.SBB 



N2.SW4.SEC30.T10N.R1E.SBB 



NE4.SEC1.T9N.R1W.SBB 



BIRDSEYE GRANITE QUARRY NE4.SEC4.T9N.R1W.SBB 

(CHALCOAL BLACK QUARRY) 

BLACK GRANITE QUARRY SE4.SE4.SEC28.T12N.R1E.SBB 

(TETONITA QUARRY) 

BLACK MOUNTAIN QUARRY SEC5.T6N.R2W.SBB 



BLUE BOY QUARRY (BLUE BOY SEC21 .T3N, R2E.SBB 
NO.1 AND NO.5) 



BOROSOLVAY PIT 



BRISTOL DRY LAKE PIT 



BRISTOL DRY LAKE PIT 



BRISTOL DRY LAKE PIT 



BROWN-GOLD-ULAC QUARRY 
GROUP 

BRUNER PACIFIC QUARRY 
(TURTLEBACK CLAIMS) 

BRYMAN ROAD PIT 



CADIZ DRY LAKE PIT 



CAUCHE QUARRY 



CALSPAR BICENTENNIAL 
GROUP 



W2.NW4.SEC30.T25S.R43E.MDB 

SEC22.27.28.T5N.R1 2E.SBB 

SEC12.T4N.R12E.SBB 

N2.SEC8.T4N.R12E.SBB 

NW4.SW4.SEC1.T9N.R1W.S8B 

SEC29.30.31.25.T5N.R2E.SBB 

SW4.SE4.SEC19.T7N.R4W.SBB 

UNDETERMINED 

SEC18.T6N.R2W.SBB 

NE4.SEC14.T7N.R2E.SBB 



RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPENPIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


RIVERSIDE 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


SAN 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


EVAPORATOR 


PRODUCING 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


EVAPORATOR 


PRODUCING 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BERNARDINO 






SAN 


OPEN PIT 


INTERMITTENT 


BERNARDINO 







65 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec.1989) 



MINENAME(alt) 


COMPANY 


PRIMARY PROOUCT 


COPRODUCT 



CALSPARMINE 



CAMPUS PIT 
(TRI-CITY/UVINGSTON- 
GRAHAM PIT) 

COLOSSEUM MINE 



COLTON DEPOSIT (SLOVER 
MOUNTAIN LIMESTONE) 

CORONA PIT (CORONA ROCK 
PIT) 

CRYSTAL HILLS PIT 



STEELHEAD RESOURCES. INC. 
HOLUDAY ROCK COMPANY 

BOND GOLD CORP. 

CALMAT COMPANY (CEMENT DIVISION) 

FONTANA PAVING. INC. 

CRYSTAL HILLS SAND AND GRAVEL INC. 



CUSHENBURY QUARRY (KAISER MITSUBISHI CEMENT CORP. 
CEMENT QUARRY) 



DANBY DRY LAKE PIT 
(MILUGAN MINE) 

DANBY DRY LAKE PIT (SALT 
PRODUCTS PIT) 

DUSTY ROSE QUARRY 



SALT PRODUCTS. INC. 

NATIONAL CHLORIDE COMPANY OF AMERICA 

CAUCO ROCK MILLING. INC. 



EAST GRAVEL PIT NO.2 (EAST KERR-MCGEE CHEMICAL CORP. 

GRAVE: PIT NO.1) 



EW4 BRINE WELLS, AMBOY 



FONTANA PIT 



FOURTH STREET PIT (LYTLE 
CREEK PIT) 

GOLD-U LAC-BARK QUARRY 
GROUP 

GRAVEL GIRTY PIT (HAMMER 
PIT) 

GREEN LEAD MINE 



GREEN MOUNTAIN QUARRY 
(DUNN QUARRY) 

HAMMER PIT 



LESLIE SALT COMPANY 



FONTANA PAVING. INC. 



FOURTH STREET ROCK CRUSHER COMPANY 



CAUCO ROCK MILUNG. INC. 



HAMMER EQUIPMENT 



CHILNER. WILUAM K. Ill 



• BRUBAKER-MANN. INC. 



HAMMER EQUIPMENT 



HEAPS PEAK QUARRY (HEAPS HARICH CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

PEAK BORROW PIT) 



HENASON PIT 



HILLTOP MINE 



KINGSTON MINE 



KRAMER HILLS MINE 
(SHAHAROLD MINE) 

UFPIT 



HENASON LIMITED 



LATKER. MARK 



AMERICAN COLLOID COMPANY 



BEAVER RESOURCES C/O MOJAVE DESERT INN 



CAJON MATERIALS AND SERVICES 



FELDSPAR 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

GOLD (LODE) 

UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 

SALT 

SALT 



DECORATIVE ROCK (VOLCANIC 
ROCK) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



CALCIUM COMPOUNDS 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 



DECORATIVE ROCK (VOLCANIC 
ROCK) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 



GOLD (LODE) 

DECORATIVE ROCK (VOLCANIC 
ROCK) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

STONE (S.B.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

GOLD (LODE) 

CLAY (BENTONITE) 

GOLD (LODE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 



SIUCA 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SILVER (LODE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SODIUM COMPOUNDS 

STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 

SODIUM COMPOUNDS 

SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SILVER 

STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

STONE (FILL) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SILVER (LODE) 

SILVER (LODE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



66 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1969) 



MINE NAME(art) 


SECTION. TOWNSHIP. RANGE 


COUNTY 


TYPE OF MINE 


MINE STATUS 



CALSPAR MINE 



E2.SEC16.T7N.R2E.SBB 



CAMPUS PIT SEC2.T1S.R8W.SBB 

(TRI-CITY/UV1NGSTON-GRAHA 

M PIT) 



COLOSSEUM MINE 



COLTON DEPOSIT (SLOVER 
MOUNTAIN LIMESTONE) 



SEC10.TT7N.R13E.SBB 



SEC19.T15N.R4W.SBB 



CORONA PIT (CORONA ROCK SEC32.T3S.R6W.SBB 

PIT) 



CRYSTAL HILLS PIT 



CUSHENBURY QUARRY 
(KAISER CEMENT QUARRY) 

DANBY DRY LAKE PIT 
(MILUGAN MINE) 

DANBY DRY LAKE PIT (SALT 
PRODUCTS PIT) 

DUSTY ROSE QUARRY 



E2.SEC1.T3N.R1W.SBB 



NW4.SEC14.T3N.R1E.SBB 



S2.SEC13.T2N.R17E.SBB 



SEC12.T2N.R18E.SBB 



NE4.NW4.NW4.SEC33.T10N.R1W.SBB 



EAST GRAVEL PIT NO.2 (EAST SW4.SEC20.T25S.R44E.MDB 

GRAVE; PIT NO.1) 

EW4 BRINE WELLS. AMBOY SEC19.T5N.R12E.SBB 



FONTANA PIT 



FOURTH STREET PIT (LYTLE 
CREEK PIT) 

GOLD-LILAC-BARK QUARRY 
GROUP 

GRAVEL GIRTY PIT (HAMMER 
PIT) 

GREEN LEAD MINE 



UNDETERMINED 



SEC6.T1S.R4W.SEC31.T1N.R4W.SBB 



W2.SW4.NE4.SEC2.T9N.R1W.SBB 



S2,SEC5,TaN.R23E,SBB 



SW4.SEC27.T2N.R1W.SBB 



GREEN MOUNTAIN QUARRY NE4,NW4,SEC34,T12N.R5E.SBB 

(DUNN QUARRY) 



HAMMER PIT 



S2,SEC5,T8N,R22W,SBB 



HEAPS PEAK QUARRY (HEAPS SW4.SW4.SEC24.T2N.R3W.SBB 

PEAK BORROW PIT) 



HENASON PIT 



HILLTOP MINE 



KINGSTON MINE 



KRAMER HILLS MINE 
(SHAHAROLD MINE) 

UFPIT 



NE4.NE4.SEC31.T1S.R4W.SBB 

NW4.SEC21.T2N.R2E.SBB 

S2.SW4.SEC26.T18N.R9E.SBB 

N2.SEC36.T10N.R6W.SBB 

SEC1.T4N.R4W.SBB 



SAN 

BERNARDINO 



SAN 

BERNARDINO 



SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 



OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

QUARRY 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

QUARRY 

EVAPORATION 
SYSTEM 

EVAPORATOR 
QUARRY 
OPEN PIT 
EVAPORATOR 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
QUARRY 
OPEN PIT 
UNDERGROUND 
QUARRY 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
UNDERGROUND 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 



INTERMITTENT 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

INTERMITTENT 

INTERMITTENT 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 



67 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


COMPANY 


PRIMARY PROOUCT 


COPRODUCT 



LUCERNE QUARRY(LA HABRA 
PRODUCTS KING 1-6) 

LUCERNE VALLEY PIT 



PLEUSS-STAUFFER, INC. 



HI-GRADE MATERIALS. INC. 



LYNX CAT MOUNTAIN QUARRY CAUCO ROCK MILLING, INC. 



LYTLE CREEK PIT A (SAN 
BERNARDINO PIT) 

LYTLE CREEK PIT B 



MACKS PEAK QUARRY (ORO 
GRANDE QUARRY) 

MARBLE CANYON QUARRY 



MIDWAY GREEN QUARRY 



MINT GREEN QUARRY 



CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 



OWL ROCK PRODUCTS COMPANY 



RIVERSIDE CEMENT COMPANY 



PFIZER, INC. 



CAUCO ROCK MILLING. INC. 



CAUCO ROCK MILUNG, INC. 



MORNING STAR MINE (NIPTON) VANDERBILT GOLD CORP. 
MOUNTAIN PASS MINE MOLYCORP. INC. 

NEWBERRY HECTORITE MINE N.L CHEMICALS 



NEWBERRY QUARRY (MPI-1 
QUARRY) 

OLD WEBSTER PIT (TRI-CITY 
REDLANDS PIT) 

ORIGINAL CANYON QUARRY 
(ORO GRANDE QUARRY) 



CAL WEST ROCK PRODUCTS. INC. 



ROBERTSON READY MIX. INC. 



RIVERSIDE CEMENT COMPANY 



ORO GRANDE SIUCA QUARRY VINNELL MINING AND MINERALS CORP. 



P-1 PIT 



PINK GRANITE QUARRY 



PINK ROCK QUARRY 



PISGAH CRATER PIT 



PLUNGE CREEK PIT 



RANEY BORROW PIT 



RED TOP MINE 



REDLANDS PIT NO.1 
(REDLANDS AGGREGATE PIT) 

REDLANDS PIT NO.2 
(REDLANDS AGGREGATE PIT) 



HUNTINGTON TILE COMPANY 

CAUCO ROCK MILUNG, INC. 

BRUBAKER-MANN. INC. 

SANTA FE RAILROAD 

ROBERTSON READY MIX, INC. 

RANEY, ROBERT D. 

SIERRA AGGREGATE COMPANY 

C.L PHARRIS SAND AND GRAVEL, INC. 

PHARRIS SAND AND GRAVEL 



UMESTONE (OTHER USES) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

DECORATIVE ROCK (GRANITE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 

UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 

DECORATIVE ROCK (VOLCANIC 
ROCK) 

DECORATIVE ROCK (VOLCANIC 
ROCK) 

GOLD (LODE) 

RARE EARTH ELEMENTS 

CLAY (HECTORITE) 

STONE (BALLAST) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 

SIUCA (QUARTZITE) 

CLAY (KAOUN) 

DECORATIVE ROCK (GRANITE) 

DECORATIVE ROCK (VOLCANIC 
ROCK) 

STONE (BALLAST) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

DECOMPOSED GRANITE 

STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
STONE (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



STONE (BASE) 

STONE (BASE) 

SILVER 

BARITE 

CLAY (BENTONITE) 

STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



CLAY (BALL) 
STONE (BASE) 
STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

STONE (BASE) 

STONE (S.B.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



68 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


SECTION. TOWNSHIP. RANGE 


COUNTY 


TYPE OF MINE 


MINE STATUS 



LUCERNE QUARRY(LA HABRA 
PRODUCTS KING 1-6) 

LUCERNE VALLEY PIT 



SEC22.T3N.R1W.SBB 



W2.NW4.SEC30.T4N.R1E.SBB 



LYNX CAT MOUNTAIN QUARRY SE4.SE4.SEC1.T10N.R4VV.SBB 

SEC23.24.25.T1 N.R5W.SBB 
LYTLE CREEK PIT I SEC8.T1 N.R5W.SBB 



LYTLE CREEK PIT A (SAN 
BERNARDINO PIT) 



MACKS PEAK QUARRY (0R0 SEC9.T6N.R4W.SBB 

GRANDE QUARRY) 



MARBLE CANYON QUARRY 



MIDWAY GREEN QUARRY 



MINT GREEN QUARRY 



MORNING STAR MINE 
(NIPTON) 

MOUNTAIN PASS MINE 



UNDETERMINED 



SE4.SE4.SE4.SEC22.T12N.R5E.SBB 



NW4.NE4.SEC30.T11N.R1E.SBB 



SEC28.T15N.R11E.SBB 



NE4.NW4.SEC13.T16N.R13E.SBB 



NEWBERRY HECTORITE MINE SEC35.T8N.R5E.SBB 



NEWBERRY QUARRY (MPI-1 
QUARRY) 

OLD WEBSTER PIT (TRI-CITY 
REDLANDS PIT) 

ORIGINAL CANYON QUARRY 
(ORO GRANDE QUARRY) 



S2.NW4.SEC5.T8N.R3E.SBB 



SEC11.T1S.R3W.SBB 



S2.SEC8.T6N.R4W.SBB 



ORO GRANDE SIUCA QUARRY SEC17.T6N.R4W.SBB 



P-1 PIT 



PINK GRANITE QUARRY 



PINK ROCK QUARRY 



PISGAH CRATER PIT 



PLUNGE CREEK PIT 



RANEY BORROW PIT 



RED TOP MINE 



REDLANDS PIT N0.1 
(REDLANDS AGGREGATE PIT) 

REDLANDS PIT N0.2 
(REDLANDS AGGREGATE PIT) 



NE4.SEC25.T14N.R17E.SBB 



NE4.NE4,NW4.SEC14,T11N.R1W.SBB 



S2.SW4.SW4.SEC28.T10N.R1W.SBB 



SEC29.32.T8N.R6E.SBB 



SEC9.10.T1S.R3W.SBB 



SE4.SEC33.T1S.R5W.SBB 



SEC24.T7N.R3E.SBB 



SEC10.T1S.R3W.SBB 



SW4.SEC1 1 .T1 S.R3W.S8B 



SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 



QUARRY 
OPEN PIT 
QUARRY 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
QUARRY 
QUARRY 
QUARRY 
QUARRY 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
QUARRY 
OPEN PIT 
QUARRY 
QUARRY 
OPEN PIT 
QUARRY 
QUARRY 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
QUARRY 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 



PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

INTERMITTENT 

INTERMITTENT 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 



69 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


COMPANY 


PRIMARY PRODUCT 


COPRODUCT 



SAN BERNARDINO PIT 



SANTA ANA RIVER PIT 



SCHEERER QUARRY 



SEARLES LAKE PLANT 



HOLUDAY ROCK COMPANY 



VERN ANTHONY GUNITE. INC. 



RIVERSIDE CEMENT COMPANY 



LESLIE SALT COMPANY 



SHAY-KLONDIKE QUARRY (ORO RIVERSIDE CEMENT COMPANY 
GRANDE QUARRY) 



SILVER PEAK QUARRY 



SPARKHULE QUARRY (ORO 
GRANDE QUARRY) 

SUPERIOR SILICA QUARRY 



TRONA PLANT 
UPLAND NORTH PIT 
UPLAND PIT 
UPLAND PIT 



UPLAND SOUTH PIT (AIRPORT 
PIT) 

VALENTINE PIT 



VICTOR #1 PIT 



VICTORITE CLAY MINE 



VICTORVILLE PIT 



WESTEND PLANT (LAKE AND 
MINERAL RESOURCES) 

WHEATON SPRINGS BORROW 
PIT 

WHITE KNOB QUARRY 



WHITE MOUNTAIN QUARRY 



WHITE QUARRY 



WINE QUARRY (NEWBERRY 
RED QUARRY) 

WINE RED QUARRY 
(NEWBERRY RED QUARRY) 

ATCKISON PIT (ASHLAND 
GRANITE QUARRY) 



BRUBAKER-MANN. INC. 
RIVERSIDE CEMENT COMPANY 
CALMAT COMPANY (CEMENT DIVISION) 
LESLIE SALT COMPANY 
BLUE DIAMOND MATERIALS 
HOLUDAY ROCK COMPANY 
CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 
BLUE DIAMOND MATERIALS 
OWL ROCK PRODUCTS COMPANY 
HI-DESERT CONCRETE PRODUCTS. INC. 
UNITED STATES TILE COMPANY 
GRAHAM ROCK AND SAND COMPANY 
KERR-MCGEE CHEMICAL CORP. 



FREHNER CONSTRUCTION 
PLEUSS-STAUFFER. INC. 



SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
UMESTONE (OTHER USES) 

SOUTHWESTERN PORTLAND CEMENT COMPANY UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 

CAUCO ROCK MILUNG. INC. 

CAUCO ROCK MILUNG, INC. 

BRUBAKER-MANN. INC. 

ASH UNO GRANITE CORP. 



DECORATIVE ROCK 
(CARBONATE) 

DECORATIVE ROCK (VOLCANIC 
ROCK) 

DECORATIVE ROCK (VOLCANIC 
ROCK) 



STONE (BASE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 

UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 

SALT 

SHALE (FOR CEMENT) 

DECORATIVE ROCK 
(CARBONATE) 

UMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 

SIUCA 

SALT 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

CLAY (BENTONITE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SODIUM COMPOUNDS 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



BORATES 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



STONE (BASE) 
STONE (BASE) 
STONE (BASE) 



DECOMPOSED GRANITE 



70 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec.1989) 



MINE NAME(att) 


SECTION, TOWNSHIP. RANGE 


COUNTY 


TYPE OF MINE 


MINE STATUS 



SAN BERNARDINO PIT 



SANTA ANA RIVER PIT 



SCHEERER QUARRY 



SEARLES LAKE PLANT 



UNDETERMINED 



SEC22.T1S.R4W.SBB 



NE4.SEC35.T6N.R4W.SBB 



SEC13-17.20.21.23.24.T26S.R43E.MDB 



SHAY-KLONDIKE QUARRY (ORO SEC17.T6N.R4W.SBB 
GRANDE QUARRY) 



SILVER PEAK QUARRY 



SPARKHULE QUARRY (ORO 
GRANDE QUARRY) 

SUPERIOR SIUCA QUARRY 



TRONA PUNT 



UPLAND NORTH PIT 



UPLAND PIT 



UPLAND PIT 



SEC32.T8N.R6W,SBB 



S2.SEC4.T6N.R4W.SBB 



NE4.SEC16.T6N.R4W.SBB 



SEC31.T25S.R43E.MDB 



SEC26.35.T1N.R8W.SBB 



SEC2.T1S.R8W.SBB 



SEC25.26.T1N.R8W.SBB 



UPLAND SOUTH PIT (AIRPORT SEC2.T1S.R8W.SBB 

PIT) 



VALENTINE PIT 



VICTOR #1 PIT 



VICTORITE CLAY MINE 



VICTORVILLEPIT 



WESTEND PLANT (LAKE AND 
MINERAL RESOURCES) 

WHEATON SPRINGS BORROW 
PIT 

WHITE KNOB QUARRY 



WHITE MOUNTAIN QUARRY 



WHITE QUARRY 



WINE QUARRY (NEWBERRY 
RED QUARRY) 

WINE RED QUARRY 
(NEWBERRY RED QUARRY) 

ATCKJSON PIT (ASHLAND 
GRANITE QUARRY) 



W2.SEC19.T3S.R7W.SBB 

NW4.SEC6.T1N.R9E.SBB 

SEC26.35.T7N.R3W.SBB 

SEC27.T5N.R4W.SBB 

SEC36.T25S.R43E.MDB 

E2.SEC34,W2,SEC35.T16N.R14E,SBB 

SEC6.T3N.R1W.SBB 

SEC7.T6N.R2W.SBB 

SE4.NE4.SEC35.T6N.R4W.SBB 

SEC9.T8N.R3E.SBB 

NE4.SE4,SEC4,T6N.R3E.SBB 

SW4.SW4.NE4.SEC30.T12S.R2W.SBB 



SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 

BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN 
BERNARDINO 

SAN * 

BERNARDINO 

SAN DIEGO 



OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

QUARRY 

EVAPORATION 
SYSTEM 

QUARRY 

QUARRY 

QUARRY 

QUARRY 

EVAPORATOR 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

EVAPORATION 
SYSTEM 

OPEN PIT 

QUARRY 

QUARRY 

QUARRY 

QUARRY 

QUARRY 

OPEN PIT 



INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

INTERMITTENT 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 



71 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1969) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


COMPANY 


PRIMARY PRODUCT 


COPROOUCT 



BEELER CANYON PIT (PADRE 
TRANSIT-MIX POWAY PLANT) 

BEYER PIT 

BEYER PIT 

BONSALL PIT 

BORDER HIGHLANDS PIT 
(BORDER PIT) 

BROWN TRUCKING DG PIT 

CARROLL CANYON PIT 

CARROLL CANYON PIT 

COAST SAND PIT 



CONTINENTAL GRANITE PIT 
(HARMONY GROVE PIT) 

COTTONWOOD CREEK PIT 



COTTONWOOD GOLF COURSE 
PIT 

DALEY/FLEURETPIT 



EL MONTE PIT 

EL MONTE SAND PIT 

ENNIS PIT 

FAUBUS PIT 

FRIARS ROAD PIT (MISSION 
VALLEY PIT) 

GENGER PIT 

HESTER'S GRANITE PIT 

HI-HOPE RANCH PIT 

KITCHEN CREEK/18 PIT 

LE. MORRISON SAND PLANT 
(SWEETWATER RESERVOIR 
DREDGE) 

LAKE HODGES PIT 

LAKE WOHLFORD ROAD PIT 
(WIKOFF QUARRY) 

LAKESIDE PIT 



PADRE TRANSIT-MIX INC. 

NELSON AND SLOAN 

H.G. FENTON MATERIAL COMPANY 

GORDON'S SAND AND GRAVEL 

NELSON AND SLOAN 

BROWN TRUCKING 
H.G. FENTON MATERIAL COMPANY 
CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 
COAST SAND COMPANY. INC. 

ASHLAND GRANITE CORP. 

TTT CONCRETE. INC. 

COTTONWOOD GOLF COURSE PARTNERSHIP 

MARRON BROTHERS. INC. 

NELSON AND SLOAN 

DAVE MARTIN SUPPUES. INC. 

ENNIS ENTERPRISES. INC. 

LANDRY. HARVEY J. 

H.G. FENTON MATERIAL COMPANY 

HARMONY ROCK PRODUCTS 
HESTER GRANITE COMPANY 
TRI-CITY MATERIALS 
TTT CONCRETE. INC. 
MORRISON. LE. 

STEVENS TRUCKING. INC. 
EARTH STORE. INC. 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 



LAKESIDE SAND PIT (EL CAJON C.W. MCGRATH. INC. 

PIT) 



LYNCH PROJECT 



ROBERT L LYNCH TRUCKING. INC. 



SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (FILL) 

DECOMPOSED GRANITE 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

DECOMPOSED GRANITE 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

DECOMPOSED GRANITE 
DECOMPOSED GRANITE 
DECOMPOSED GRANITE 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (FILL) 
DECOMPOSED GRANITE 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

DECOMPOSED GRANITE 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND ANO GRAVEL (BASE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (FILL) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



72 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


SECTION. TOWNSHIP. RANGE 


COUNTY 


TYPE OF MINE 


MINE STATUS 



BEELER CANYON PIT (PADRE 
TRANSIT-MIX POWAY PLANT) 

BEYER PIT 

BEYER PIT 

BONSALL PIT 

BORDER HIGHLANDS PIT 
(BORDER PIT) 

BROWN TRUCKING DG PIT 

CARROLL CANYON PIT 

CARROLL CANYON PIT 

COAST SAND PIT 



CONTINENTAL GRANITE PIT 
(HARMONY GROVE PIT) 

COTTONWOOD CREEK PIT 



COTTONWOOD GOLF COURSE 
PIT 

DALEY/FLEURET PIT 



EL MONTE PIT 

EL MONTE SAND PIT 

ENNIS PIT 

FAUBUS PIT 

FRIARS ROAD PIT (MISSION 
VALLEY PIT) 

GENGER PIT 

HESTER'S GRANITE PIT 

HI-HOPE RANCH PIT 

KITCHEN CREEK/18 PIT 



W2.NE4.SEC25.T14S.R2W.SBB 

SEC22.23.T18S.R2W.SBB 
SW4.SEC22.T18S.R2W.SBB 

S2.SEC30.T1 OS. R3W.SBB 

S2.SEC3.T19S.R2W.SBB 

SE4.SEC10.T10S.R3W.SBB (PROJ) 
SEC1.2.3.T15S.R3W.SBB 
NE4.NW4&S2.N2.SEC6.T15S.R2W.SBB 
SEC33.T13S.R3W.SBB (PROJ) 

E2.SEC30.T12S.R2W.SBB 

SE4.SEC29.T16S.R5E.SBB 

NE4.SEC31.T16S.R1E.SBB (PROJ) 

SE4.SEC4.T11S.R4W.SBB 

SEC17.T15S.R1E.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC10.T15S.R1E.SBB (PROJ) 

NE4.SEC1T15S.R1W.SBB (PROJ) 

SW4.SW4.SEC11.T10S.R3W.SBB (PROJ) 

NW4.SEC18.T16S.R2W.SBB (PROJ) 

SE4.SEC30.T12S.R2W.SBB 
NW4.SW4.SEC21.T16S.R1E.SBB 
NE4. NE4.SEC2.T1 1 S. R4W. SBB 
SW4.SW4.SEC33.T16S.R5E.SBB 



LE. MORRISON SAND PLANT SEC10.T17S.R1W.SBB (PROJ) 

(SWEETWATER RESERVOIR 

DREDGE) 



LAKE HODGES PIT 



NE4.SEC12.T13S.R2W.SBB (PROJ) 



LAKE WOHLFORD ROAD PIT SE4.SE4.SEC31.T11S.R1W.SBB 

(WIKOFF QUARRY) 



LAKESIDE PIT 



SEC13.T15S.R1W.SBB (PROJ) 



LAKESIDE SAND PIT (EL CAJON SEC18.T15S.R1E.SBB (PROJ) 
PIT) 



LYNCH PROJECT 



SE4.SEC7.T12S.R3W.SBB 



SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 



OPEN PIT 



OPEN PIT 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

OPEN PIT 



OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

OPEN PIT 



GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

OPEN PIT 



OPEN PIT/QUARRY 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

DREDGE 

OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 



GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

QUARRY 



PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

INTERMITTENT 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 



73 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec.1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


COMPANY 


PRIMARY PRODUCT 


COPROOUCT 



MCGRATH DG PIT #1 
(JAMACHA PIT) 

MISSION GORGE PIT 

MISSION ROAD PIT (SAN LUIS 
REY RIVER PIT) 

MISSION VALLEY PIT 

NATIONAL QUARRY 

NELSON AND SLOAN PIT #12 
(TRI-WAY PIT) 

OTAY RANCH PIT 



PA LA PIT 

PALA PIT 

PALO VERDE LAKE PIT 
PAUMA VALLEY PIT 
R.C.P. PIT #1 

R.C.P. PIT #2 

R.C.P. PIT #3 

R.C.P. PIT #5 

RANCHO CORONADO NORTH 
PIT 

ROCK MOUNTAIN QUARRY 
(PHASE 5 PIT, BIRCH QUARRY) 

SAN LUIS REY RIVER PIT (GIRD 
ROAD PIT) 

SIM J. HARRIS PIT 

SLAUGHTERHOUSE CANYON 
PIT 

SLOAN CANYON SAND PIT 

SORRENTO SAND PIT 

SOUTH COAST ASPHALT 
QUARRY (HAYMAR STREET 
QUARRY) 

STEWART MINE 

SWEETWATER RESERVOIR 
SAND PIT 

SYCAMORE AVENUE QUARRY 
(VISTA QUARRY) 

TAYLOR PIT 

THING VALLEY ROAD PIT 

TTT QUARRY (MINE#1) 



C.W. MCGRATH, INC. 

CANYON ROCK COMPANY, INC. 
MARRON BROTHERS. INC. 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 
NATIONAL QUARRIES 
NELSON AND SLOAN 

NELSON AND SLOAN 

SORRENTO READY MIX, INC. 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

J.B. UNLIMITED, INC. 

PAUMA VALLEY COUNTRY CLUB 

R.C.P. COMPANY. INC. 

R.C.P. COMPANY. INC. 

R.C.P. COMPANY, INC. 

R.C.P. COMPANY. INC. 

BIERI-AVIS 

NELSON AND SLOAN 

MORRISON. LE. 

SIM J. HARRIS COMPANY 
ASPHALT, INC. 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

SORRENTO READY MIX, INC. 

SOUTH COAST ASPHALT PRODUCTS COMPANY 

GEMS OF PALA. INC. 
NELSON AND SLOAN 

WYROC, INC. 

TAYLOR TRUCKING AND MATERIALS CO. 
S AND W SAND AND MATERIALS 
TTT CONCRETE, INC. 



DECOMPOSED GRANITE 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

DECOMPOSED GRANITE DIMENSION STONE (GRANITE) 

STONE (FILL) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

STONE (BASE) 

STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
STONE (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 
STONE (P.C.C.) 

GEM MINERALS 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
STONE (P.C.C.) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



STONE (RIP RAP) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

STONE (BASE) 

MICA 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
STONE (BASE) 



74 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


SECTION. TOWNSHIP. RANGE 


COUNTY 


TYPE OF MINE 


MINE STATUS 



MCGRATH DG PIT #1 
(JAMACHA PIT) 

MISSION GORGE PIT 

MISSION ROAD PIT (SAN LUIS 
REY RIVER PIT) 

MISSION VALLEY PIT 

NATIONAL QUARRY 

NELSON AND SLOAN PIT #12 
(TRI-WAY PIT) 

OTAY RANCH PIT 



PALAPIT 

PALA PIT 

PALO VERDE LAKE PIT 
PAUMA VALLEY PIT 
R.C.P. PIT #1 

R.C.P. PIT #2 

ac.p. PIT #3 

R.C.P. PIT #5 



RANCHO CORONADO NORTH 
PIT 

ROCK MOUNTAIN QUARRY 
(PHASE 5 PIT, BIRCH QUARRY) 

SAN LUIS REY RIVER PIT (GIRD 
ROAD PIT) 

SIM J. HARRIS PIT 

SLAUGHTERHOUSE CANYON 
PIT 

SLOAN CANYON SAND PIT 

SORRENTO SAND PIT 

SOUTH COAST ASPHALT 
QUARRY (HAYMAR STREET 
QUARRY) 

STEWART MINE 

SWEETWATER RESERVOIR 
SAND PIT 

SYCAMORE AVENUE QUARRY 
(VISTA QUARRY) 

TAYLOR PIT 

THING VALLEY ROAD PIT 

TTT QUARRY (MINE #1) 



SE4.SE4.SEC24.T16S.R1W.SBB 

SEC3.T16S.R2W.SBB (PROJ) 
NW4.NW4.SEC6.T1 1 S.R3W.SBB 

SEC13.T16S.R3W.SBB (PROJ) 
SW4.SEC10.T1 1 S.R3W.SBB 
SE4.SEC36.T14S.R1W.SBB 

SEC20.21.T18S.R1W.SBB 

NE4.SEC32.T9S.R2W.SBB 

NE4.SEC26.T9S.R2W.SBB 
SW4.SEC35.T15S.R2E.SBB 
NW4.SEC22.T10S.R1W.SBB (PROJ) 
SEC22.T15S.R1W.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC23.T15S.R1W.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC22.23.T15S.R1W.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC22.T15S.R1W.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC13.14.23.T12S.R3W.SBB 

SEC21.TieS.R1W.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC9,10.15,16.T10S.R3W,SBB 

NW4.SEC19.T15S.R2W.SBB (PROJ) 
S2.SW4.SEC35.T14S.R1W.SBB 

N2.S2.SEC15.T16S.R1E.SBB 
NE4. NE4.SEC30.T1 4S. R3W.SBB 
SEC33.T11S.R4W.SBB (PROJ) 

NW4.SEC23.T9S.R2W.SBB 
NW4.SW4.SEC11.T17S.R1W.SBB 

NE4.SEC7.T12S.R3W.SBB 

SW4.SEC21.T16S.R1E.SBB 
NE4.NE4.SEC1 ,T1 7S.R5E.SBB 
SEC35.36.T14S.R1W.SBB 



SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 

SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 
SAN DIEGO 



OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT/QUARRY 

OPEN PIT 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

OPEN PIT 

DREDGE 

OPEN PIT 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

QUARRY 

QUARRY 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

OPEN PIT 

QUARRY 

OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
QUARRY 

UNDERGROUND 
OPEN PIT 

QUARRY 

OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
QUARRY 



PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 



75 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec.1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


COMPANY 


PRIMARY PRODUCT 


COPRODUCT 



TWIN OAKS QUARRY 
(SILBERGERGER PIT) 

U.S. SIUCA PIT 

VANDEGRIFT BOULEVARD PIT 
(YASUKOCHI-SCHULTZ PIT) 

WEIR PIT (PALA PIT) 



BEE ROCK QUARRY 

BUELLFLAT BAR 

COLSON SUMMIT QUARRY 
(SANTA MARIA QUARRY) 

DOTY PIT 

EL JARO QUARRY 



ELLWOOD RANCH QUARRY 
(ELLWOOD CANYON 
SANDSTONE) 

FOX ROCK BAR 



GARDNER PIT 
(BUELLTON SITE) 

GUADALUPE SAND PIT 



SOUTH COAST ASPHALT PRODUCTS COMPANY STONE (S.B.) 



STONE (RIP RAP) 



U.S. SIUCA OF CAUFORNIA 

SOUTH COAST ASPHALT PRODUCTS COMPANY 

J.W. SAND AND MATERIALS. INC. 

BLAKEMORE. F. JOHN 

BUELLFLAT ROCK COMPANY 

ANTOUNI AND SONS 

PARKS LAND & CATTLE COMPANY, INC. 



LS. HAWLEY CORP. 



SANTA BARBARA SAND AND TOPSOIL 



PINE CANYON ROCK. INC. 



GRANITE CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 



GORDON SAND COMPANY 



DIMENSION STONE 
(SANDSTONE) 



SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 
DECOMPOSED GRANITE 

SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 

UMESTONE (FOR UME) STONE (RIP RAP) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

STONE (RIP RAP) 

SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 

STONE (RIP RAP) STONE (BASE) 

SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) STONE (S.B.). SANDSTONE 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) ' 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 



LAS CRUCES QUARRY 



LIVE OAK SHALE QUARRY 



LOMPOC QUARRY 



ANTOUNI AND SONS 



UVE OAK RANCH 



MANVILLE PRODUCTS COMPANY 



DIMENSION STONE 
(SANDSTONE) 

STONE (BASE) 
DIATOMITE 



DECORATIVE ROCK 
(SANDSTONE) 

STONE (S.B.). SHALE 



MIGUEUTO CANYON QUARRY HOLMDAHL. DEWAYNE 



MIGUEUTO QUARRY (TOLBERT GREFCO. INC. 

MINE) 



PALOS COLORADOS QUARRY 
(DIBBLEE MINE) 



GREFCO. INC. 



SISQUOC GRAVEL PIT (SISQUOC KAISER SAND AND GRAVEL COMPANY 
PLANT) 



SISQUOC RANCH PIT (GAREY 
ROCK PLANT) 

SISQUOC RIVER BAR 



SOLVANG SAND PIT 
(CHRISTENSEN'S SAND PIT) 



COAST ROCK PRODUCTS. INC. 
COAST ROCK PRODUCTS. INC. 
SOLVANG SAND 



TEPUSQUET CANYON QUARRY ANTOUNI AND SONS 



VENTUCOPA PIT 



TAFT READY MIX 



STONE (BASE) 

DIATOMITE 

DIATOMITE 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 



DIMENSION STONE 
(SANDSTONE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 



STONE (S.B.). MIOCENE 
SANDSTONE 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (FILL) 



DECORATIVE ROCK 
(SANDSTONE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



76 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1969) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


SECTION. TOWNSHIP. RANGE 


COUNTY 


TYPE OF MINE 


MINE STATUS 



TWIN OAKS QUARRY 
(SILBERGERGER PIT) 

U.S. SIUCA PIT 

VANDEGRIFT BOULEVARD PIT 
(YASUKOCHI-SCHULTZ PIT) 

WEIR PIT (PALA PIT) 



BEE ROCK QUARRY 



BUELLFLAT BAR 



COLSON SUMMIT QUARRY 
(SANTA MARIA QUARRY) 

DOTY PIT 



EL JARO QUARRY 



ELLWOOD RANCH QUARRY 
(ELLWOOD CANYON 
SANDSTONE) 

FOX ROCK BAR 



GARDNER PIT (BUELLTON 
SITE) 

GUADALUPE SAND PIT 



LAS CRUCES QUARRY 



LIVE OAK SHALE QUARRY 



LOMPOC QUARRY 



NW4.NW4.SEC14.T11S.R3W.SBB 

SEC20.T11S.R4W.SBB 
NW4.SEC27.T10S.R4W.SBB 

NE4.SEC1.T10S.R3W.SBB 

SEC31.T6N.29W.SBB 

SE4.SE4.SEC17.T6N.R31W.SBB 

UNDETERMINED 

NE4.SEC1.T4N.R30W.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC28.T6N.R33W.SBB 

SEC2.T4N.R29W.S8B 

SEC18.T12N.R32W.SBB 

SEC18.T6N.R31W.SBB 

SEC10.T10N.R36W.SBB 

SE4.SE4,SEC5,T5N,R33W,SBB 

SEC18.T6N.R31W.SBB 

SEC14.T6N.R34W.SBB 



MIGUEUTO CANYON QUARRY SEC7.T6N.R34W.SBB 



MIGUEUTO QUARRY (TOLBERT 
MINE) 

PALOS COLORADOS QUARRY 
(DIBBLEE MINE) 

SISQUOC GRAVEL PIT 
(SISQUOC PUNT) 

SISQUOC RANCH PIT (GAREY 
ROCK PLANT) 

SISQUOC RIVER BAR 



SOLVANG SAND PIT 
(CHRISTENSEN'S SAND PIT) 



SEC16.T6N.R33W.SBB 



SEC27.T6N.R33W.SBB 



SW4.SEC17.T9N.R32W.SBB 



NE4.SEC16.T9N.R32W.SBB 



NE4.SEC16.T9N.R32W.SBB 



SEC21.T7N.R31W,SBB 



TEPUSQUET CANYON QUARRY SEC15.T10N.R32W.SBB 



VENTUCOPA PIT 



SEC32.T9N.R24W.SBB 



SAN DIEGO 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


SAN DIEGO 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


SAN DIEGO 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


SAN DIEGO 


GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 


PRODUCING 


SANTA 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


GRAVEL BAR 


PRODUCING 


BARBARA 


SKIMMING 




SANTA 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


GRAVEL BAR 


INTERMITTENT 


BARBARA 


SKIMMING 




SANTA 


GRAVEL BAR 


PRODUCING 


BARBARA 


SKIMMING 




SANTA 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


QUARRY 


PRODUCING 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


GRAVEL BAR 


INTERMITTENT 


BARBARA 


SKIMMING 




SANTA 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


QUARRY 


INTERMITTENT 


BARBARA 






SANTA 


OPEN PIT 


PRODUCING 


BARBARA 







77 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

ACT L cSlDMsS of Mines an. Geology database (Dec.1989, 




BLUE STAR PIT 

EL RIO PIT 

EL RIO PIT (SANTA CLARA 
RIVER PIT) 

EL RIO PIT #2 

GRIMES CANYON QUARRY 

MARY SMITH QUARRY 
MOORPARK PIT 
OAK RIDGE PIT 
OAK RIDGE PIT 

RIDGEUGHT PIT 

SANTA CLARA RIVER PIT 

SANTA PAULA PIT (SANTA 
CLARA RIVER PIT) 

SANTA PAULA PIT (SANTA 
CLARA RIVER PIT) 

SANTA PAULA PIT 

SATICOY PIT (SANTA CLARA 
RIVER PIT) 

SATICOY PIT 
SCHMIDT OJAI QUARRY 

SESPE CREEK PIT 
TAPO CANYON PIT 
TAPO CANYON QUARRY 
VENTURA RIVER PIT 



BLUE STAR READY MIX. INC. 
SOUTHERN PACIFIC MILUNG COMPANY 
CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 
BEST ROCK PRODUCTS 

SANDERS. A.J. 

BEST ROCK PRODUCTS 

QUALITY ROCK PRODUCTS 

SOMIS ROCK AND SAND COMPANY 

PACIFIC LIGHTWEIGHT PRODUCTS COMPANY 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

GRANITE CONSTRUCTION COMPANY 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

SOUTHERN PACIFIC MILUNG COMPANY 
SOUTHERN PACIFIC MILUNG COMPANY 

CALMAT COMPANY (AGGREGATE DIVISION) 

SCHMIDT CONSTRUCTION COMPANY. INC. 

SESPE ROCK PRODUCTS. INC. 

C.Z.S. CORP. 

TAPO ROCK AND SAND COMPANY. INC. 

SOUTHERN PACIFIC MILUNG COMPANY 



SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

DECORATIVE ROCK 
(NON-SPECIFIED) 

STONE (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

CLAY (BENTONITE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
STONE (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 



SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



STONE (S.B.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SHALE (FOR AGGREGATE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
STONE (RIP RAP) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (S.B.) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 



78 



BLUE STAR PIT 

EL RIO PIT 

EL RIO PIT (SANTA CLARA 
RIVER PIT) 

EL RIO PIT #2 

GRIMES CANYON QUARRY 



ACTIVE MINES OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (1988-1989) 

from California Division of Mines and Geology database (Dec. 1989) 



MINE NAME(alt) 


SECTION. TOWNSHIP, RANGE 


COUNTY 


TYPE OF MINE 


MINE STATUS 



SEC8.9.16.17.21.T3N.R19W.SBB 
SEC15.16.T2N.R22W.SBB 
SEC13.14.T2N.R22W.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC12.T2N.R22W.SBB (PROJ) 
NW4.SEC18.T3N.R19W.SBB 



VENTURA 
VENTURA 
VENTURA 

VENTURA 
VENTURA 



OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 
QUARRY 



PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 



MARY SMITH QUARRY 

MOORPARK PIT 

OAK RIDGE PIT 

OAK RIDGE PIT 

RIDGEUGHT PIT 

SANTA CLARA RIVER PIT 

SANTA PAULA PIT (SANTA 
CLARA RIVER PIT) 

SANTA PAULA PIT (SANTA 
CLARA RIVER PIT) 

SANTA PAULA PIT 

SATICOY PIT (SANTA CLARA 
RIVER PIT) 

SATICOY PIT 

SCHMIDT OJAI QUARRY 

SESPE CREEK PIT 

TAPO CANYON PIT 

TAPO CANYON QUARRY 

VENTURA RIVER PIT 



SEC8.9.17.T1N.R20W.SBB 

SW4.SEC18.T3N.R19W.SBB 

S2.SEC17.SE4.SEC17.T3N.R19W.SBB 

E2.SEC22.T3N.R20W.S8B 

N2.S2.&S2.N2.SEC19.T8N.R20W.SBB 

SEC21.28.T3N.R21W.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC12.T3N.R21S.SBB 

SEC29.T3N.R21W.SBB (PROJ) 

SEC15.22.T3N.R21W.SBB 
SEC.31.32.T3N.R21W.SBB 

SEC13.22.T2N.R33W.SBB (PROJ) 

SE4.NE4.SEC29.T5N.R23W.SBB 

SEC25.T4N.R19W.SBB 

SEC24.T3N.R18W.SBB 

W2.NW4.SEC19.T3N.R17W.SBB 

SEC32.T3N,R23W,SBB 



VENTURA 
VENTURA 
VENTURA 
VENTURA 
VENTURA 
VENTURA 
VENTURA 

VENTURA 

VENTURA 
VENTURA 

VENTURA 
VENTURA 
VENTURA 
VENTURA 
VENTURA 
VENTURA 



QUARRY 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 
OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

GRAVEL BAR 
SKIMMING 

OPEN PIT 

QUARRY 

OPEN PIT 

OPEN PIT 

UNDETERMINED 

OPEN PIT 



PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 

PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 
PRODUCING 



79 



IMPERIAL COUNTY 

PRODUCT 

GOLD (LODE) 

GYPSUM 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C) 

STONE (FILL) 



Number of Mines 

4 
2 
9 
6 
1 



COPRODUCT 

NONE LISTED 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (SUBBASE) 
SILVER (LODE) 



Number of Mines 

11 
5 
2 
4 



INYO COUNTY 

PRODUCT 

BORATES 

CINDERS (BASE) 

CLAY (BENTONITE) 

GOLD (LODE) 

LIMESTONE (OTHER USES) 

PERLITE 

PUMICE 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SODIUM COMPOUNDS 

TALC 

TUNGSTEN 
WOLLASTONITE 
ZEOLITES 

KERN COUNTY 

PRODUCT 



Number of Mines 

1 

1 

1 

3 

1 

1 

3 

2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

1 

1 



Number of Mines 



BORATES 

CLAY (FIRE) 

DECORATIVE ROCK 

DIMENSION STONE (SCHIST) 

GOLD (LODE) 

GOLD (PLACER) 

GYPSUM 

LIMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 

PUMICE 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (FILL) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (SUBBASE) 

SHALE (AGGREGATE) 

SHALE (FOR CEMENT) 

SHALE (LIGHT AGGREGATE) 

SHALE (SPECIALTY USES) 

SILICA 

SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 

STONE (BASE) 
STONE (SUBBASE) 



1 

1 

2 

1 

4 

2 

1 

5 

1 

9 

1 

14 
1 
2 
1 
1 
3 
1 
2 
3 
3 



COPRODUCT 

NONE LISTED 

DECORATIVE ROCK (CINDERS) 

MOLYBDENUM 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SILVER (LODE) 



Number of Mines 

14 

1 
1 
1 
3 



COPRODUCT 

NONE LISTED 

CLAY (BENTONITE) 

CLAY (KAOLIN) 

DIATOMITE 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (SUBBASE) 

SHALE (FOR CEMENT) 

SHALE (LIGHT AGGREGATE) 

SILVER (LODE) 

STONE (SUBBASE) 



Number of Mines 

34 

1 
1 
2 
11 
1 
2 
1 
4 
2 



80 



LOS ANGELES COUNTY 



PRODUCT 



Number of Mines 



CLAY (COMMON) 
DECORATIVE ROCK 
DIMENSION STONE 
GEM MINERALS 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (FILL) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
STONE (P.C.C.) 
STONE (RIP RAP) 
TUNGSTEN 



2 

1 
1 
1 
3 
1 

20 
1 
2 
1 



COPRODUCT 


Number of Mines 


NONE LISTED 


9 


CLAY (FIRE) 


1 


SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 


18 


SERICITE 


1 


STONE (BASE) 


1 


STONE (RIP RAP) 


2 


STONE (SUBBASE) 


1 



ORANGE COUNTY 



PRODUCT 



Number of Mines 



CLAY (COMMON) 
CLAY (KAOLIN) 
CLAY (OTHER USES) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 
STONE, DECOMPOSED GRANITE 
STONE (P.C.C.) 
STONE (SUBBASE) 



COPRODUCT 

NONE LISTED 

CLAY (KAOLIN) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

STONE (BASE) 

STONE (FILL) 



Number of Mines 

4 
1 
3 

1 
1 



RIVERSIDE COUNTY 



PRODUCT Number of Mines 


COPRODUCT 


Number of Mines 


CLAY (COMMON) 


3 


NONE LISTED 


32 


CLAY (FIRE) 


2 


CLAY 




CLAY (KAOLIN) 


3 


CLAY (COMMON) 




CLAY (OTHER USES) 


1 


CLAY (FIRE) 




DECOMPOSED GRANITE 


1 


CLAY (KAOLIN) 




DECOMPOSED GRANITE (FILL) 


1 


CLAY (OTHER USES) 




DECORATIVE ROCK 


2 


DIMENSION STONE 




DECORATIVE ROCK (GRANULES) 


1 


SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 


16 


GOLD (LODE) 


1 


SAND AND GRAVEL (FILL) 




SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 


8 


SAND AND GRAVEL (SUBBASE) 


2 


SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 


24 


SHALE (SPECIALTY USES) 




SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 


4 


SILVER (LODE) 




STONE (BASE) 


6 


STONE (BASE) 


4 


STONE (P.C.C.) 


3 


STONE (RIP RAP) 




STONE (RIP RAP) 


3 


STONE (SUBBASE) 




STONE (SUBBASE) 


2 







81 



SAN BERNARDINO COUNTY 



PRODUCT Number of Mines 


CALCIUM COMPOUNDS 


4 


CLAY (BENTONITE) 


3 


CLAY (HECTORITE) 


1 


CLAY (KAOLIN) 


1 


DECOMPOSED GRANITE 


1 


DECORATIVE ROCK (CARBONATE) 


2 


DECORATIVE ROCK (GRANITE) 


4 


DECORATIVE ROCK (VOLCANIC) 


11 


DIMENSION STONE (GRANITE) 


1 


FELDSPAR 


2 


GOLD (LODE) 


5 


GYPSUM 


1 


IRON ORE 


1 


IRON ORE (FOR CEMENT) 


1 


LIMESTONE (FOR CEMENT) 


11 


LIMESTONE (OTHER USES) 


2 


RARE EARTH ELEMENTS 


1 


SALT 


4 


SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 


7 


SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 


23 


SHALE (FOR CEMENT) 


2 


SILICA 


1 


SILICA (QUARTZITE) 


1 


SODIUM COMPOUNDS 


1 


SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 


1 


STONE (BALLAST) 


2 


STONE (BASE) 


1 


STONE (SUBBASE) 


1 



COPRODUCT 


Number of Mines 


NONE LISTED 


30 


BARITE 


1 


BORATES 


1 


CLAY (BALL) 


1 


CLAY (BENTONITE) 


1 


DECORATIVE ROCK 


1 


LIMESTONE (FOR LIME) 


1 


SALT 


1 


SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 


23 


SAND AND GRAVEL (SUBBASE) 


6 


SILICA 


1 


SILVER 


2 


SILVER (LODE) 


3 


SODIUM COMPOUNDS 


3 


STONE (BASE) 


19 


STONE (FILL) 


1 


STONE (SUBBASE) 


1 



SAN DIEGO COUNTY 



PRODUCT 


Number of Mines 


COPRODUCT 


Number of Mines 


DECOMPOSED GRANITE 




11 


NONE LISTED 


38 


GEM MINERALS 




1 


DIMENSION STONE (GRANITE) 


1 


SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 




7 


MICA 


1 


SAND AND GRAVEL (FILL) 




2 


SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 


16 


SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 




29 


SAND AND GRAVEL (FILL) 


1 


SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 


4 


SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 


1 


STONE (BASE) 




3 


STONE (BASE) 


2 


STONE (FILL) 




1 


STONE (RIP RAP) 


2 


STONE (P.C.C) 




3 






STONE (SUBBASE) 




1 







SANTA BARBARA COUNTY 



PRODUCT Number of Mines 


DIATOMITE 


3 


DIMENSION STONE (SANDSTONE) 


3 


LIMESTONE (FOR LIME) 


1 


SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 


1 


SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 


6 


SAND AND GRAVEL (SUBBASE) 


1 


SPECIALTY SAND (OTHER USES) 


3 


STONE (BASE) 


2 


STONE (RIP RAP) 


1 



COPRODUCT Number of Mines 


NONE LISTED 


4 


DECORATIVE ROCK (SANDSTONE) 


2 


SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 


6 


SAND AND GRAVEL (FILL) 


1 


SAND AND GRAVEL (SUBBASE) 


2 


STONE (BASE) 


1 


STONE (RIP RAP) 


2 


STONE (SUBBASE), MIOCENE SS 


1 


STONE (SUBBASE), SANDSTONE 


1 


STONE (SUBBASE), SHALE 


1 



82 



VENTURA COUNTY 








PRODUCT 


Number of Mines 


COPRODUCT 


Number of Mines 


CLAY (BENTONITE) 
DECORATIVE ROCK 
SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 
SAND AND GRAVEL (P.C.C.) 
STONE (BASE) 


1 
1 
1 

16 
2 


NONE LISTED 

SAND AND GRAVEL (BASE) 

SAND AND GRAVEL (SUBBASE) 

SHALE (FOR AGGREGATE) 

STONE (RIP RAP) 

STONE (SUBBASE) 


4 

12 

2 

1 

1 

1 



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BLM LIBRARY 



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